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Ch. 3 terms

skeletal system

TermDefinition
arthrodesis surgical fusing of two bones to stiffen a joint, such as spinal fusion arthro/desis
arthrolysis surgical loosening of an ankylosed joint arthro/lysis
chondromalacia abnormal softening of cartilage chondro/malacia
comminuted fracture bone is splintered or crushed
craniostenosis malformation of the skull due to premature closure of cranial sutures cranio/stenosis
hallux valgus bunion, abnormal enlargement of joint a base of big toe
hemarthrosis blood within a joint hem/arthr/osis
kyphosis abnormal increase in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side, dowager's hump kyph/osis
lordosis abnormal increase in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine, swayback lord/osis
metacarpals five bone that form the palm of the hand
metatarsals foot bones
open fracture bone is broken and there is an open wound in the skin
orthopededic surgeon physician who specializes in bone, joints, and muscles
osteoporosis marked loss of bone density and increase in porosity osteo/por/osis
podiatrist physician who specializes in the foot
scoliosis abnormal lateral curvature of the spine scoli/osis
spina bifida congenital defect that occurs during early pregnancy when spinal canal fails to close around spinal cord
spondylolisthesis forward slipping movement of the body of a lumbar vertebrae on the vertebrae below it spondylo/listhesis
synovectomy surgical removal of a synovial membrane from a joint synov/ectomy
functions of skeletal system -framework for body -make movement possible -protection -store calcium -form red blood cells
ossification process of bone making ossi/fication
articular cartilage covers surfaces of bones where they articulate
periosteum tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of the bone peri/oste/um
compact bone dense, hard, very strong bone that forms the outer layer of bones
spongy bone porous, lighter and weaker than compact bone often contains red bone marrow
medullary cavity central cavity in shaft of long bones contains red and yellow bone marrow
endosteum tissue that lines the medullary cavity end/oste/um
red bone marrow in spongy bone, manufactures blood cells
yellow bone marrow fat storage area
diaphysis shaft of a long bone
epiphysis wider ends of long bones, proximal and distal ends
types of joints fibrous cartilaginous synovial
fibrous joint inflexible layers that hold bones tightly together, do not allow movement, sutures on skull
cartilaginous joint allow slight movement, connected entirely by cartilage, ribs (costal cartilage) and pelvis
synovial joint created where two bones articulate, allow a variety of movement, ball and socket, hinge
synovial membrane lines the capsule and secretes synovial fluid
synovial fluid flows within the synovial cavity acts as a lubricant
ligaments bands of fibrous tissue that connect bone to bone (sometimes bone to cartilage)
bursa fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement in joints
ankylosis loss of absence of mobility in a joint, ankyl/osis
atherosclerosis stiffness of joints, especially in elderly, arthro/sclerosis
arthroplasty surgical repair of a damaged joint, or replacement with artificial joint arthro/plasty
chondroplasty surgical repair of damaged cartilage, chondro/plasty
arthroscopic surgery minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of the interior of a joint, arthro/scopic
frontal bone bone behind forehead
parietal bones largest bones in skull most of roof and upper sides of cranium
temporal bones bone behind temples, form sides and base of cranium
occipital bone back of skull and base of cranium
zygomatic bones cheekbones
maxillary bones upper jaw
mandible bone jawbone, onlly skull bone that moves
sternum breastbone
clavicle collar bone
humerous upper arm
radius forearm bone near thumb
ulna forearm bone away from thumb, larger and point of elbow
carpals 8 bones of the wrist
phalanges 14 finger bones and toe bones singular phalanx
tarsals 7 bones of the ankle
5 parts of the spinal cord cervical-7 thoracic-12 lumbar-5 sacrum-fused 1, part of pelvis coccyx-4 fused to 1, tailbone
ilium hip bones
ischium butt bones
pubis pubic bones
pubic symphysis cartilaginous joint that unites the left and right pubic bones
femur thigh bone
patella knee cap
tibia shinbone
fibula smaller lower leg bone
osteomyelitis inflammation of bone marrow and adjacent bone osteo/myel/itis
closed fracture bone is broken, but skin is not
greenstick fracture bone is bent, but only partially broken
oblique fracture at an angle across the bone
transverse fracture straight across the bone
chiropractor specializes in spine misalignment disorders
osteopath specializes in treatment with spinal manipulation
rheumatologist specializes in arthritis and other inflammation in the joints and connective tissues
hemopoietic makes blood cell hemo/poietic
Fibrous dysplasia bone disorder that destroys normal bone structure and replaces it with fibrous tissue
ostealgia bone pain osteo/algia
osteonecrosis bone death osteo/necrosis
Created by: malloryharlan