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Anatomy 2 Ch2

Blood crap

Function of blood Transportation– O2, CO2, metabolic wastes, nutrients, heat & hormones•Regulation–helps regulate pH through buffers–helps regulate body temperature–helps regulate water content of cells •Protection from disease & loss of blood
Physical Characteristics of Blood Thicker flows more slowly than water•Temperature of 100.4 •pH 7.4 (7.35-7.45)•8 % of total body weight•Blood volume–5 to 6 liters in male–4 to 5 liters in female–hormonal negative feedback systems maintain constant blood volume and osmotic pressure
Components of blood 55% plasma–92% water–8% solutes•45% cells –99% RBCs–< 1% WBCs and platelets
Blood plasma Over 90% water and•7% plasma proteins created in liver and confined to bloodstream [albumin,globulins, fibrinogen]
Albumin: maintain blood osmotic pressure
globulins (immunoglobulins)•antibodies bind to foreign substances called antigens
Fibrinogen: for clotting
2% other substances in blood plama electrolytes, nutrients, hormones, gases, waste products
Hematocrit proportion, by volume, of the blood that consists of red blood cells.
Percentage of blood occupied by cells– female normal range•38 - 46% (average of 42%)–male normal range•40 - 54% (average of 46%)•testosterone
Anemia not enough RBCs or not enough hemoglobin
Polycythemia– too many RBCs (over 65%)–dehydration, tissue hypoxia, blood doping in athletes
Formed elements of blood Red blood cells (erythrocytes)•White blood cells (leukocytes)•Platelets (special cell fragments)
Formation of blood cells in embryo occurs in yolk sac, liver, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes & red bone marrow
Formation of blood cells in adults occurs only in red marrow of flat bones like sternum, ribs, skull & pelvis and ends of long bones
Hematopoiesis production of blood cells and platelets, which occurs in the bone marrow.
Hemopoietic Growth Factors Regulate differentiation & proliferation
Erythropoietin (EPO)– produced by the kidneys increase RBC precursors
Thrombopoietin (TPO)– hormone from liver stimulates platelet formation
Cytokines local hormones of bone marrow–produced by some marrow cells to stimulate proliferation in other marrow cells–colony-stimulating factor (CSF) & interleukin stimulate WBC production
Erythropoiesis Erythrocyte formation occurs in adult red bone marrow of certain bones
The main stimulus for erythropoiesis is hypoxia
_____ starts to produce hemoglobin. Many steps later, nucleus is ejected & a____is formed –orange i Proerythroblast; reticulocyte
Reticulocytes escape from bone marrow into the blood
Tissue hypoxia (cells not getting enough O2)–high altitude–anemia–circulatory problems
Anemia RBC production falls below RBC destruction
Kidney response to hypoxia– release erythropoietin–speeds up development of proerythroblasts into reticulocytes
RBCs live 120 days. wear out from bending to fit through capillaries–no repair possible due to lack of organelles
Worn out red blood cells are removed by fixed macrophages in spleen & liver•Breakdown products are recycled
Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes) Contain oxygen-carrying protein hemoglobin that gives blood red color–1/3 of cell’s weight is hemoglobin•Biconcave disk 8 microns in diameter–increased surface area/volume ratio –flexible shape for narrow passages–no nucleus or organelles, no cell divide
Normal RBC count male 5.4 million/drop - female 4.8 million/drop–new RBCs enter circulation at 2 million/second
Hemoglobin Globin protein consisting of 4 polypeptide chains•One heme pigment attached to each polypeptide chain–each heme contains an iron ion (Fe+2) that can combine reversibly with one oxygen molecule
Transport of O2, CO2 and Nitric Oxide Each hemoglobin molecule can carry 4 oxygen molecules•Hemoglobin transports 23% of total CO2 waste•Hemoglobin transports nitric oxide & super nitric oxide helping to regulate BP
Iron(Fe+3) stored in liver, muscle or spleen–in bone marrow being used for hemoglobin synthesis
Heme: Converted to bilirubin (yellow) secreted by liver into bile •converted to stercobilin (brown pigment in feces) by bacteria of large intestine•if reabsorbed from intestines into blood is converted to a yellow pigment, urobilin and excreted in urine
Leukocytes (WBCs) nucleated cells and do not contain hemoglobin.
Granular leukocytes: eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils
Agranular leukocytes: lymphocytes and monocytes
Majorhistocompatibility antigens (MHC) Surface proteins that are unique for each person –Can be used to identify a tissue
WBC Physiology Less numerous than RBCs–5000 to 10,000 cells per drop of blood. Only 2% of total WBC population is in circulating blood at any given time–rest is in lymphatic fluid, skin, lungs, lymph nodes & spleen
Leukocytosis high white blood cell count–microbes, strenuous exercise, anesthesia or surgery
Leukopenia low white blood cell count–radiation, shock or chemotherapy
Function of WBCs Different WBCs combat inflammation and infection in different ways.
Neutrophils and wandering or fixed macrophages (which develop from monocytes) combat through phagocytosis.
Eosinophils combat the effects of histamine in allergic reactions, phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes, and combat parasitic worms.
Basophils develop into mast cells that liberate heparin, histamine, and serotonin in allergic reactions that intensify the inflammatory response.
B lymphocytes In response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens, differentiate into tissue plasma cells that produce antibodies.
T lymphocytes destroy foreign invaders directly
WBCs leave the blood stream by emigration
chemotaxis. The chemical attraction of WBCs to a disease or injury site
Emigration in WBCs WBCs roll along endothelium, stick to it & squeeze between cells.–adhesion molecules displayed near site of injury (selectins) help WBCs stick to endothelium–molecules (integrins) found on neutrophils assist in movement through wall
Phagocytosis in WBCs Neutrophils & macrophages phagocytize bacteria & debris–chemotaxis of both
Neutrophils (Granulocyte) Nuclei = 2 to 5 lobes connected by thin strands–older cells have more lobes•Diameter is 10-12 microns •60 to 70% of circulating WBCs•Fastest response of all WBC to bacteria
Neutrophils Direct actions against bacteria by releasing: Lysozymes which destroy/digest bacteria–Defensin proteins that act like antibiotics & poke holes in bacterial cell walls destroying them–Strong oxidants (bleach-like, strong chemicals ) that destroy bacteria
Basophils (Granulocyte) Large, dark purple, variable-sized granules stain with basic dyes–obscure the nucleus•Irregular, s-shaped nuclei •Diameter is 8 to 10 microns•>1% of circulating WBCs•Involved in inflammatory and allergy reactions
Basophils Leave capillaries and... enter connective tissue as mast cells
Basophils release... heparin, histamine & serotonin–heighten the inflammatory response and account for hypersensitivity (allergic) reaction
Eosinophils (Granulocyte) Nucleus with 2 or 3 lobes connected by thin strand•Diameter 10-12microns•2-4% of circulating WBCs•Leave capillaries to enter tissue fluid•
Eosinophils release... histaminase –slows down inflammation caused by basophils•Attack parasitic worms•Phagocytize antibody-antigen complexes
Lymphocyte (Agranulocyte) Dark, oval to round nucleus•Cytoplasm sky blue in color–amount varies from rim of blue to normal amount•Small cells 6 - 9 microns in diameter•Large cells 10 - 14 microns in diameter–increase in number during viral infections•20 to 25% of circulating WBCs
Lymphocyte functional cells B cells, T cells, natural killer cells
B cells destroy bacteria and their toxins–turn into plasma cells that produces antibodies
T cells attack viruses, fungi, transplanted organs, cancer cells & some bacteria
Natural killer cells attack many different microbes & some tumor cells–destroy foreign invaders by direct attack
Monocyte (Agranulocyte) Nucleus is kidney/horseshoe shaped•Largest WBC in circulating blood–does't remain in blood long before emigrating–differentiate into fixed&wandering macrophages•Diameter12 -20 microns•3-8% of circulating WBCs
Monocyte function •Destroy microbes and clean up dead tissue following an infection•Take longer to get to site of infection, but arrive in larger numbers
Granular leukocytes Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
Agranular leukocytes Lymphocytes (T cells, B cells, natural killer cells), monocyte
Complete Blood Count (CBC) Screens for anemia and infection•Total RBC, WBC & platelet counts; differential WBC; hematocrit and hemoglobin measurements
Normal hemoglobin range Infants have 14 to 20 g/100mL of blood–Adult females have 12 to 16 g/100mL of blood–Adult males have 13.5 to 18g/100mL of blood
Differential WBC Count Detection of changes in numbers of circulating WBCs (percentages of each type)–indicates infection, poisoning, leukemia, chemotherapy, parasites or allergy reaction
Normal WBC count for neutrophils 60-70% (up if bacterial infection)
Normal WBC count for lymphocytes 20-25% (up if viral infection)
Normal WBC count for monocytes 3-8 % (up if fungal/viral infection)
Normal WBC count for eosinophil 2-4 % (up if parasite or allergy reaction)
Normal WBC count for basophil <1% (up if allergy reaction or hypothyroid)
Platelets Help stop blood loss from damaged vessels by forming platelet plug. –Their granules contain chemicals that promote clotting.•Megakaryoblasts transform into megakaryocytes which fragment.•Each fragment, enclosed by piece of cell membrane, is a thrombocyte
Stimulates myeloid stem cells to produce platelets. Thrombopoietin (TPO)
Myeloid stem cells develop into ____ that develop into ______ megakaryocyte-colony-forming cells; megakaryoblasts
Platelet (Thrombocyte) Anatomy Disc-shaped, 2 - 4 micron cell fragment with no nucleus
Normal platelet count 150,000-400,000 per drop of blood
Normal RBC count 5 million
Normal WBC count 5-10,000
Platelets form in bone marrow by the following steps: myeloid stem cells → megakaryocyte-colony forming cells → megakaryoblast →megakaryocytes (whose cell fragments form platelets)
Platelets life span Short life span (5 to 9 days in bloodstream)–formed in bone marrow–few days in circulating blood–aged ones removed by fixed macrophages in liver and spleen
Clotting Stoppage of bleeding in a quick & localized fashion when blood vessels are damaged•Prevents hemorrhage (loss of a large amount of blood)
Methods utilized in clotting vascular spasm–platelet plug formation–blood clotting (coagulation = formation of fibrin threads)
A clot is... a gel consisting of a network of insoluble protein fibers (fibrin) in which formed elements of blood are trapped. gel separates into liquid (serum) and a clot of insoluble fibers (fibrin) in which the cells are trapped
The chemicals involved in clotting are known as coagulation (clotting) factors; most are in blood plasma, some are released by platelets, and one is released from damaged tissue cells
Blood clotting involves a cascade of reactions that may be divided into three stages: formation of prothrombinase (prothrombin activator), conversion of prothrombin into thrombin, and conversion of soluble fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin
The clotting cascade can be initiated by either the extrinsic pathway or the intrinsic pathway
Normal coagulation requires vitamin K and also involves clot retraction (tightening of the clot) and fibrinolysis (dissolution of the clot).
The fibrinolytic system dissolves small, inappropriate clots and clots at a site of damage once the damage is repaired.
Plasmin (fibrinolysin) can dissolve a clot by digesting fibrin threads and inactivating substances such as fibrinogen, prothrombin, and factors V, VIII, and XII.
vascular Spasm Damage to blood vessel stimulates pain receptors•Reflex contraction of smooth muscle of small blood vessels•Can reduce blood loss for several hours until other mechanisms can take over•Only for small blood vessel or arteriole
Granules needed for platelet plug formation alpha granules, dense granules
Chemicals stored in alpha granules •clotting factors •platelet-derived growth factor–cause proliferation of vascular endothelial cells, smooth muscle & fibroblasts to repair damaged vessels
Chemicals stored in dense granules •ADP, ATP, Ca+2, serotonin, fibrin-stabilizing factor, & enzymes that produce thromboxane A2
Steps in platelet plug process (1) platelet adhesion (2) platelet release reaction (3) platelet aggregation
Platelet Adhesion (plug) Platelets stick to exposed collagen underlying damaged endothelial cells in vessel wall
Platelet Release Reaction (plug) Platelets activated by adhesion•Extend projections to make contact with each other •Release thromboxane A2 & ADP activating other platelets•Serotonin & thromboxane A2 are vasoconstrictors decreasing blood flow through the injured vessel
Platelet Aggregation (plug) Activated platelets stick together and activate new platelets to form a mass called a platelet plug•Plug reinforced by fibrin threads formed during clotting process
Clot formation Ca+2 needed for clot formation•Clotting is a cascade of reactions which each clotting factor activates next in fixed sequence resulting in formation of fibrin threads
When clotting in unbroken vessel called... thrombosis
prothrombinase & Ca+2 convert prothrombin into thrombin
thrombin converts fibrinogen into fibrin threads
Overview of clotting cascade Prothrombinase is formed by either the intrinsic or extrinsic pathway•Final common pathway produces fibrin threads
Extrinsic Pathway Damaged tissues leak tissue factor (thromboplastin) into bloodstream•Prothrombinase forms in seconds•In the presence of Ca+2, clotting factor X combines with V to form prothrombinase
Intrinsic Pathway Activation occurs–endothelium is damaged & platelets come in contact with collagen of blood vessel wall–platelets damaged & release phospholipids•Requires several minutes for reaction to occur•Substances involved: Ca+2 and clotting factors XII, X and V
Prothrombinase and Ca+2 – catalyze the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
Thrombin in the presence of Ca+2 converts soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin threads–activates fibrin stabilizing factor XIII –positive feedback effects of thrombin•accelerates formation of prothrombinase•activates platelets to release phospholipids
Clot Retraction & Blood Vessel Repair Clot plugs ruptured area of blood vessel•Platelets pull on fibrin threads causing clot retraction •Edges of damaged vessel are pulled together•Once edges of damaged vessel are pulled together, the repair process begins.(Sewing together a tear in a shirt)
Role of Vitamin K in Clotting Normal clotting requires vitamin K(fat soluble vitamin absorbed if lipids are present) absorption slowed if bile release is insufficient•Required for synthesis of 4 clotting factors by hepatocytes•Produced by bacteria in large intestine
fibrinolysis dissolution of a clot
Anticoagulants present in blood & produced by mast cells
Thrombosis– clot (thrombus) forming in an unbroken blood vessel–may dissolve spontaneously or dislodge & travel
Embolus – clot, air bubble or fat from broken bone in the blood
Coagulation Time Refers to how long it takes blood to clot.•Thrombosis occurs if blood clots to easily•Hemorrhage occurs if blood takes too long to clot
Prothrombin time (PT)– This test is used to evaluate the adequacy of the extrinsic system
Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT)– This test is used to evaluate the intrinsic coagulation system
Anticoagulants Heparin–warfarin (Coumadin)(antagonist to vitamin K so blocks synthesis of clotting factors)–stored blood in blood banks treated with citrate phosphate dextrose (CPD) that removes Ca+2
Thrombolytic agents are injected to dissolve clots–directly or indirectly activate plasminogen–streptokinase or tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)
At low doses aspirin inhibits vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation thereby reducing the chance of thrombus formation.
In the ABO system, agglutinogens (antigens) A and B determine blood types. Plasma contains agglutinins (antibodies), designated as a and b, that react with agglutinogens that are foreign to the individual.
Blood Groups and Blood Types RBC surfaces are marked by genetically determined glycoproteins & glycolipids –agglutinogens or isoantigens–distinguishes at least 24 different blood groups •ABO, Rh, Lewis, Kell, Kidd and Duffy systems
Created by: Devtemrys



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