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Module E (Quizlet 3)

Technical Escort - Radiological Operations

Name surface burst features Detonated on or close enough to the earth's surface that fireball makes contact with it, causes largest, long-term battlefield hazard, near and contact effects and identified by dark, dirty mushroom like stem and cloud
Name surface burst features Produces significant amount of fallout, the greatest amount of radiation is found and overall effects are reduced as compared to an airburst
Near (surface) features The fireball touches the surface of the earth but not the center of the fireball, will produce radioactive fallout and Neutron, induced gamma activity (NIGA)
(Surface) contact burst features Creates a crater, significant fallout hazard and devastating effects against buildings and underground facilities
Subsurface burst features Primarily used in weapons testing, 157 countries have signed the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (Sub-surface tests only) and most energy goes into crater formation and/or ground shock
Subsurface burst features Takes place beneath the earth's surface, may or may not rupture the surface (depth/yield) and localized radiation will be significant if the blast ruptures the surface
Shallow subsurface burst features Ruptures surface of the ground, energy vented reduces ground shock and significant residual radiation
Deep subsurface burst features Does not rupture the surface, energy transformed into ground shock or earthquake like effects and greatly reduced radiation signature
What are the five blast effects? Thermal effects, nuclear radiation, initial radiation, residual radiations and electrical psychological
What is the distribution of energy PIN wheel? Blast is 50%, thermal radiation/heat is 35%, residual radiation is 10%, initial radiation (first 60 sec) is 4% and EMP is 1%
What are the wind effects of a nuclear blast? Static, dynamic, positive and negative pressure
Static (peak) over-pressure definition Once the over-pressure peaks, air rushes back to fill the vacuum created by the dynamic pressure wave. This creates a second dragging defect, back toward GZ
Dynamic pressure definition Extreme winds travel outward from the point of burst (GZ) and cause a dragging effect on all objects in the blast area
Positive pressure definition As the blast wave travels away from its source, the pressure steadily increase in all directions
Negative pressure definition Occurs when the pressure behind the blast wave (static) falls below the positive (dynamic) pressure pressing outward in the surrounding atmosphere
What are the four biological effects from a nuclear blast? Missile, crushing and translational injuries & concussive effect
Residual radiation definition Released later than 60 seconds after detonation
Name electrical effects of a nuclear blast High altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP), EMPs, transient radiation effects on electronics, and blackouts
Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) definition? Strong radio waves of short duration, damages electronic equipment by causing electrical surges
What are the protective measures against radiation Time, distance and shielding
Created by: JeromeTalley