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Chapter 1

Here's a variety of ways to study the important terms/ information in Chapter 1!

Anatomy The study of the structure of an organism.
Dissection The cutting of parts of an organism.
Physiology The study of the function of the living organism and its parts.
Applied/ clinical anatomy Application of anatomical study for the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Descriptive/ systemic anatomy Description of he individual parts of the body w/out reference to disease conditions.
Gross anatomy Structures visible w.out the aid of microscopy
Microscopic anatomy Structures not visible to the eye
Surface/ superficial anatomy Study of the form and structure of the surface of the body, especially with the reference to the organs beneath the surface
Developmental anatomy The continual development of an organism
Pathological anatomy Study of disease conditions or structural abnormalities
Comparative anatomy Similarities and differences across the animal kingdom
Electrophysiological techniques Measure the electrical activity of single cells or groups of cells, including muscle and nervous system tissues
Cytology Study of structure and function of cells
Histology Microscopic study of cells and tissues
Osteology Study of structure and function of bones
Myology Study of muscle form and function
Arthrology Study the joints that unite bones
Angiology Study of blood vessels and the lymphatic system
Neurology Study of diseases of the nervous system
Anatomical position Erect body w/ palms, arms, and hands face forward
Axial skeleton Refers to the head and trunk of the body
Appendicular skeleton Refers to the lower and upper limbs of the body
Neuraxis Axis of the brain
Frontal Divides body into front and back sections
Midsagittal/ sagittal Divides body into left and right halves
Anterior Refers to frontal surface of body; also known as ventral
Posterior Refers to the rear surface of the body; also known as dorsal
Rostral Refers to toward the head
Peripheral Away from the center to another
Superficial On or near surface
Deep Further from surface
External Outside
Internal Within
Distal Away from midline of body
Proximal Toward midline of the body
Prone Body in horizontal position w/ face down
Supine Body in horizontal position w/ face up
Lateral Toward the side
Flexion Bending of a joint
Extension Stretching of joint
Hyperextension Extreme extension
Dorsiflexion Flexion that brings dorsal surfaces into closer proximity
Plantar/ Plantarflexion sole of foot; flexion of toes
Inversion Inward to body
Eversion Outward from body
Palmar Refers to the palm of the hand
Pronate Prone position of the palm
Supinate Supine position of the palm
Ipsilateral same side
Thorax Chest region
abdomen region represented externally as the belly
Dorsal trunk the region commonly referred to as the back of the body
Pelvis the area formed by the sacrum, coccyx, and innominate bones of the body
Cranial portion the part of the skull that houses the brain and its components
Facial part the part of the skull that houses the mouth, pharynx, nasal cavity, and structures related to the upper airway and mastication
Lower extremity portion of the body made up of the thigh, leg, ankle, and foot
Epithelial tissue superficial (outer) layer of mucous membranes and the cells constituting the skin, as well as the linings of major body cavities and all of the “tubes” that pass into, out of, and through the body
Baseplate/ basement membrane the tissue that underlies the epithelium, which is made predominantly of collagen
Connective tissue Tissue that has the pmurpose to support and protect
Matrix material that holds or constrains another material. Intercellular material
Interstitial Space or gap in tissue
Fibrous tissue binds structures together
Fibrocartilage connective tissue fibers that contain collagen, providing a cushioning for structure
Collagenous/ reticular fibers Provide a flexible structure to fibrous connective tissue
elastic fibers provide recoil to this tissue where needed.
Blood connective tissue comprised of plasma and blood cells suspended in this plasma matri
Bone the hardest of the connective tissues
compact bone bone characterized microscopically by its lamellar or sheet-like structure
spongy bone bone that appears porous, and contains marrow that produces red and white blood cell
Fibroblast responsible for production of the extracellular matrix, so are able to synthesize and secrete protein
Muscle tissue specialized contractile tissue
Striated muscle striped muscle appearance
Smooth muscle muscle that is found in the viscera, including digestive tract and blood vessels
Cardiac muscle muscle of the heart, composed of cells that interconnect in a net-like fashion
Nervous tissue highly specialized communicative tissue consisting of neurons or nerve cells
Neurons nerve cell tissue whose function is to transmit information from one neuron to another, from neurons to muscles, or from sensory receptors to other neural structures
Organs tissue of the body with functional utility
Muscle contractile tissue; attached to bones
Fascia surrounds organs, being a sheet-like membrane that may be either dense or nearly transparent, thin or thick
Ligament connective tissue that binds bone to bone
Aponeurosis sheet- like tendon
articulation the point of union between two structure
Fibrous (synathrodial) joints joints that are connected by fibrous tissue; immobile
Cartilaginous (thyroidal) joints joints in which cartilage serves to connect two bones
Synovial (diarthrodial) joints a type of diarthrodial joint that has encapsulated fluid as a cushion
Syndesmosis bound by fibrous ligaments but have little movement
Sutures immobile joints between plates of bone
Articular capsule the fibrous connective tissue covering of a synovial joint
Plane synovial joints joints with mating surfaces that are predominantly flat
Condylar joints a shallow ball-and-socket joint with limited mobility
Trochoid joint a joint consisting of a process and fossa, permitting only rotation
Saddle joint a ball- and-socket joint in which the concave member rests on an elongated convex member
Hinge joint a joint that acts like a hinge, permitting only flexion and extension
Epimysium Surrounds muscles
Agonists/ prime mover muscle contracted for purpose of a specific motor act (as contrasted to the antagonist)
Antagonist a muscle that opposes the contraction of another muscle
Fixators muscles that stabilize structures through contraction
Isometric muscle action that does not result in movement
Innervation stimulation of a muscle, gland or structure by means of a nerve *afferent nerve- sensory efferent nerve- excitatory
Muscle contractile tissue, with muscle bundles capable of shortening to about half their length
System a functionally defined group of organs
Muscular system the anatomical system that includes smooth, striated, and cardiac muscle
Skeletal system the anatomical system that includes the bones and cartilages that make up the body
Respiratory system the physical system involved in respiration, including the lungs, bronchial passageway, trachea, larynx, pharynx, oral cavity, and nasal cavity
Reproductive system the system of the body involved in reproduction
Urinary system the body system including kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra
Endocrine system the system involved in production and dissemination of hormones
Nervous system the system of nervous tissue, comprising the central and peripheral nervous systems
Speech systems includes respiratory, phonatory, articulatory, resonatory, and nervous systems
Phonatory system the system including the laryngeal structures through which phonation is achieved
Articulatory system in speech science, the system of structures involved in shaping the oral cavity for production of the sounds of speech
Resonatory system the portion of the vocal tract through which the acoustical product of vocal fold vibration resonates (usually the oral, pharyngeal, and nasal cavities combined; sometimes referring only to the nasal cavities and nasopharynx)
Central nervous system portion of the nervous system comprised of the cerebral cortex, the cerebellum, thalamus, basal ganglia, brain stem, and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system portion of the nervous system serving the peripheral body
Cranial nerves peripheral nervous system components arising from the brain stem that innervate primarily the structures associated with speech and hearing
Cerebral cortex the highest integrating system of the nervous system, responsible for conscious thought and voluntary action
Brain stem the subcortical region including the medulla, pons, and midbrain
Created by: accromartie



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