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The Digestive Sys

The Digestive System

Why does food have to be digested before cells can use it? It has to be broken down into particles small enough to pass through the plasma membrane of cells.
What is the name of the large serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity and covers the organs it contains? Peritoneum
What are the four layers of the digestive tract wall? mucous membrane (mucosa), a submucosa, smooth muscle (muscularis externa), and a serous membrane (serosa)
Which form of motility occurs in the esophagus? In the small intestine? Peristalsis- esophagus. Segmentation in the small intestine.
What type of food is digested in the stomach? Proteins
What are the three divisions of the small intestine? Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
How does the small intestine function in the digestive process? Most digestion takes place in the small intestine. Most absorption of digested food and water also occurs in the small intestine.
What are the functions of the large intestine? Reaborbs some water and stores, forms, and elimates the stool. It also houses bacteria that provide some vitamins.
What are the names and locations of the salivary glands? The salivary glands are the parotid, anterior and inferior to the ear; submandibular (submaxillary), near the body of the lower jaw; and sublingual, under the tongue.
Which accessory organ secretes bile, and what is the function of bile in digestion? Liver. Bile emulsifies fats, (breaks it down into smaller particles)
What is the role of the gallbladder? Stores bile and contracts to release it into the duodenum.
What accessory organ secretes sodium bicarbonate, and what is the function of this substance in digestion? The pancreas. Sodium bicarbonate neutralizes the acidic chyme from the stomach.
What is an enzyme? A catalyst that speeds the rate of a chemical reaction but is not used up in the reaction.
What process means "splitting by means of water," as in digestion? Hydrolysis
Which organ produces the most complete digestive secretions? Pancreas
What is absorption? The movement of digested nutrients into the circulation.
What are two types of control over the digestive process? Nervous control and hormonal.
What is the difference between hunger and appetite? Hunger is the desire for food that can be satisfied by the ingestion of a filling meal. Appetite is a desire for food that is unrelated to a need for food.
What are six common diseases of the mouth and teeth? Caries, gingivitis, periodontitis, Vincent disease, oral thrush, and parotitis.
What does GERD stand for? Gastroesophageal reflux disease.
Which two diseases fall into the category of inflammatory bowel disease? Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis
What are the two forms of constipation? Flaccid and spastic.
What is hepatitis? Inflammation of the liver.
What is the common term for cholelithiasis? Gallstones
The wavelike movement of the digestive tract wall is called peristalsis
The small intestine is connected to the posterior abdominal wall by mesentery
The liver can store glucose in the form of glycogen
The parotid glands secrete saliva
Inflammation of the gallbladder is termed cholecystitis
Digests starch amylase
Begins protein digestion pepsin
Digests fats lipase
Splits protein into amino acids trypsin
Emulsifies fats bile salts
The teeth break up food into small parts by a process called? mastication
Which organ secretes hydrochloric acid and pepsin? stomach
What is the main substance of a tooth? dentin
What is the soft, fleshly V-shaped mass of tissue that hangs from the soft palate called? uvula
What is the scientific name for tooth decay? caries
Created by: Jessica Venyke



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