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Anatomy Ch 10 Part 2

This time with special senses and some eye stuff

Sensory receptors: collect information from the environment, and relay it to the CNS on sensory neurons; link nervous system to internal and external changes or events;can be specialized cells or multicellular structures
Sensation: A feeling that occurs when brain becomes aware of sensory information
Perception: The way the brain interprets the sensory information
5 types of sensory receptors in the body: Chemoreceptors, Pain receptors (nociceptors), Thermoreceptors, Mechanoreceptors, Photoreceptors
Chemoreceptors: Respond to changes in chemical concentrations (smell, taste, oxygen concentration)
Nociceptors: Respond to tissue damage (mechanical, electrical, thermal energy)
Thermoreceptors: Respond to moderate changes in temperature
Mechanoreceptors: Respond to mechanical forces that distort receptor (touch, tension, blood pressure, stretch)
Photoreceptors: Respond to light (eyes)
Somatesthetic senses– sensors located over wide areas of the body–Information usually conducted to the spinal cord first (then possibly the brain)
Special Senses– Changes detected only by specialized sense organs in the head–Information conducted directly to the brain
Iris– Thin ring of pigmented muscle in front of lens
Pupil– opening at center of the iris- Muscles alter pupil size, thus amount of light passing into the eye
Radial muscles open pupil to let in more light (sympathetic)
Circular muscles close pupil in bright light (parasympathetic)
Lens– Solid but pliable transparent body–Used to focus light on the retina
Ciliary Body– Ring-shaped smooth muscle encircling lens;Linked to lens by suspensory ligaments–Adjusts shape of lens to focus light
Retina Lining of the vitreous chamber–Contains photoreceptors
Fovea centralis point where light from the center of the visual field is focused;high density of cone cells
Optic disc where optic nerve joins the eye;no photoreceptors - “blind spot”
Accommodation Changing lens shape to focus light from objects at different distances on the retina;Achieved by contracting ciliary body to different degrees
Far objects accommodation light from object enters eye from narrow range of angles; ciliary body relaxes, suspensory ligament is taut, lens stretched; less convex, less bending of light
Near objects accommodation light from object enters eye from wide range of angles; ciliary body contracts, lens recoils; more convex, more bending of light
Rods More numerous than cones; Cannot distinguish different colors; Highly sensitive to light (low light levels detected); Low visual acuity (image not as sharp)
Cones Found mainly in fovea centralis; Can distinguish among colors; Low light sensitivity (need more light to see with cones); High acuity (image is sharper)
Colour Blindness: 1 in 12 men, 1 in 200 women; X chromosome based disorder inherited from mother, but can be from other diseases like diabetes; most common is red/green blindness
Astigmatism Defective curvature of the cornea or lens of the eye.;This causes light rays to be unevenly and not sharp focused on the retina, so that the image is distorted.; A cylindrical lens is used to correct this problem
Hypermetropia Farsightedness, the eyeball in this condition is too short. ;Parallel rays of light tend to focus behind the retina, which results in a blurred image.; It is corrected by convex lens
Presbyopia Impairment of vision as a result of old age.; Usually corrected with bifocal lens
Myopia Nearsightedness, they eyeball is too long (front to back).; The image perceived is blurred because the light rays are focused in front of the retina.; Corrected by concave lens
Nystagmus Involuntary eye movement; Nystagmus is a vision condition in which the eyes make repetitive, uncontrolled movements.; These movements often result in reduced vision and depth perception and can affect balance and coordination.
Cutaneous Sensor/Skin Structure Heat, cold, and pain- Thermoreceptors & nociceptors; Free dendritic endings of sensory neurons
Smell (Olfaction) Detection of chemicals in vapor state; Olfactory receptors are bipolar neurons–Dendrite extends into nasal epithelium and ends in a ciliated knob
Odorants bind to... receptor proteins on cilia–Depolarizes olfactory receptor
APs in olfactory receptor axons travel to ... olfactory bulb
Info relayed to olfactory cortex in the _____, and _____ Temporal lobe; limbic system
Auditory ossicles act as sound amps; Malleus against tympanic membrain, incus and stapes linked to oval window
Cochlea snail-shell like structure divided into three fluid-filled parts. 2 are canals for transmission of pressure.The third is the sensitive organ of Corti;detects pressure impulses & responds w/ electrical impulses which travel along auditory nerve to brain
Equilibrium Sense changes in position and motion of the head–balance and coordination of body movement
Hair cells Housed within the membranous labyrinth; Bending hair cells alters membrane potential
Created by: Devtemrys



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