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GOV UNIT 6 TST 2019

Mr. Stickler's Liberty Christian GOV. State/Local Government Tst Flashcards 2019

QuestionAnswer
List three (3) reasons why state constitutions are important. 1.) They create structure in government; 2.) Establish different types of local government (EX: counties & townships); 3.) Regulate how state & local governments can raise & spend money.
What is the purpose of "constitutional commissions"? The purpose of this group of experts is to study the state constitution and recommend changes.
What does the term "referendum" mean/ refer to? This term refers to situations when voters - rather than the legislature - votes on an issue.
Which state is the only state that has a "unicameral" (i.e. "one-chambered") legislature? Nebraska is the only state that has this.
What does the term "bicameral" mean/refer to? This term means "two-chambered" and refers to the fact that a state or federal legislature has 2 chambers: a House of Representatives and a Senate.
How many states have a "lieutenant governor"? 49 states have these.
What does the term "lieutenant governor" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the person who is the 2nd highest ranking politician in many (49) states.
What are the qualifications for becoming a "governor" in most states? 1.) Be at least 30 years old; 2.) Be an American citizen; 3.) Be a resident of the state for 5 or more years.
What does the term "plurality" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the largest number of votes in an election".
How long do most state governors serve? Most serve 4 year terms of office.
What does the term "item veto" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the power to turn down a particular section or item in a piece of legislation without vetoing the entire law".
What do state "attorney generals" do? These officials supervise the legal activities of all state agencies, give legal advice to the governor, & act as a lawyer for the state in cases in which it is involved.
What are "civil cases"? These are cases that involve a dispute between 2 or more private individuals or organizations.
What are "criminal cases"? These are cases in which the state brings charges against a citizen for violating a law.
What is the "Missouri Plan" where state government is concerned? This plan "combines appointment by the governor and popular election" where appointing state judges is concerned.
Why do some people question the wisdom of electing state court judges? They question whether people are informed enough to elect judges, and they fear political influences upon judges who are elected.
What is a "corporate charter"? This is "a document that grants certain rights, powers, and privileges to a corporation".
What is a "public utility"? These are "organizations, either privately or publicly owned, that supply necessities such as gas, electricity, telephone service, or transportation service".
What does the term "worker's compensation" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the payments people unable to work as a result of job-related injury or ill health receive".
What does the term "unemployment compensation" mean/ refer to? This term refers to payments that people who are unable to find employment receive.
What is "mandatory sentencing"? This is "a system of fixed, required terms of imprisonment for certain types of crimes".
What are "victim compensation laws"? These are laws in which state governments provide financial aid to victims of certain crimes.
What does the term "extradition" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a legal procedure through which a person accused of a crime who has fled to another state is, on demand, returned to the state where the crime occurred".
What does the term "parole" mean/ refer to? This term means that a prisoner serves the rest of the sentence in the community under the supervision of a parole officer.
What does the term "shock probation" mean/ refer to? This term refers to a program in which juvenile offenders were briefly incarcerated - followed by supervised release - to show them how terrible prison life can be.
What does the term "shock incarceration" mean/ refer to? This is a relatively new program that involves shorter sentences in a highly structured environment where offenders participate in work, community service, education, & counseling.
What does the term "house arrest" mean/ refer to ? This term refers to a program in which an offender stays at home except for certain functions the court permits.
What are "excise taxes"? These are taxes on select items.
What are "regressive taxes"? These are taxes in which the percentage of income taxed drops as incomes rise.
What are "progressive taxes"? These are taxes that rise as a person's income rises.
What are "proportional taxes"? These are tax systems in which all wage earners are taxes at the same percentage of their income (EX: everyone pays a 10% tax).
What does the term "intergovernmental income" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "revenue distributed by one level of government to another".
What does the term "federal grant" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "sums of money that are given to states for a variety of specific purposes".
What are "block grants"? These are "large sums of money paid to a state or local government to be used for a general purpose" (EX: public health or crime control).
What does the term "mandate" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a formal order given by a higher authority".
What are "counties"? These are normally the largest territorial & political subdivision in a state.
What is the purpose of a "county board"? The purpose of this group of officials is to govern most counties. (The name of this board varies from state to state.)
What are "townships"? These exist in 20 states and are divisions of counties.
What are "municipalities"? These are urban units of government - a town, borough, city, or urban district - that has legal rights granted by the state through its charter.
What are "special districts"? These are units of local government that deal with a specific function (EX: education or transportation).
What does the term "incorporation" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the process by which a community "sets up a legal community" and form a municipal government.
What does the term "strong-mayor system" mean/ refer to? This term refers to a local government in which the municipal charter grants the mayor strong executive powers.
What does the term "weak-mayor system" mean/ refer to? This term refers to a local government in which the municipal charter grants the mayor weak executive powers.
Why do many large cities prefer council-manager form of municipal government? Political experts believe it leads to better management & responsible government because executive & legislative powers are clearly separated, making it easy for votes to assign praise or blame.
What does the term "zoning" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "regulations regarding the way land and buildings may be used".
What does the term "metropolitan area" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a large city and its surrounding suburbs".
What is the difference between "real property" and "personal property"? "Real property" consists of land and any buildings that are built on it. "Personal property" consists of such things as jewelry, stocks & bonds, and furniture.
What does the term "assessment" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the process of calculating the value of (the) property".
What does the term "market value" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the amount of money the owner may expect to receive if the property is sold".
Created by: sticklerpjpII