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Upper Extremities

Anatomy

QuestionAnswer
Muscles of Posterior Forearm: Superficial Muscles Brachioradialis, Extensor carpi radialis longus, Extensor carpi radialis brevis, Extensor Carpi Ulnaris, Extensor Digitorum, Extensor digiti minimi
Mx of Pectoral Region Pectoralis Major, Pectoralis Minor, Serratus Anterior
Extrinsic Back Muscles Trapezius, Rhomboid Major, Rhomboid Minor, Levator Scapulae, Latissimus dorsi
Rotator Cuff Subscapularis, Teres Minor, Infraspinatus, Supraspinatus
Not part of rotator cuff: Teres Major
Intrinsic shoulder muscles Deltoid; rotator cuff muscles; Teres Major
Muscles of Anterior Arm Biceps brachii, Coracobrachialis, Brachialis
Muscles of Posterior Arm Triceps Brachii
Muscles of Anterior Forearm: Superficial Muscles Pronator Teres, Flexor Carpi Radialis, Palmaris Longus, Flexor Carpi Ulnaris, Flexor digitorum superficialis
Muscles of Anterior Forearm: Deep Muscles Flexor Digitorum Profundus, Flexor pollicis longus, Pronator quadratus
Muscles of Posterior Forearm: Deep Muscles Extensor indicis, Extensor pollicis longus, Extensor pollicis brevis, Abductor pollicis longus, Supinator
Hypothenar Muscles Abductor digiti minimi, Flexor digiti minimi brevis, Opponens digiti minimi
Muscles of Central Compartment Adductor pollicis, Lumbricals, Palmar interossei, Dorsal interossei
Superficial Muscles of Posterior Forearm: Brachioradialis, ECRL, ECRB, ECU, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi
Anterior forearm: Superficial compartment Originate from medial epicondyle of humerus; Cross elbow
Anterior forearm: Deep compartment Originate from shafts of ulna/ radius & inteross membrane; do not cross elbow
Superficial muscles of anterior forearm (lateral to medial) Pronator teres, FCR, palmaris longus, FCU, FDS
Posterior forearm: Superficial compartment Originate from lateral epicondyle; cross elbow
Posterior forearm: Deep compartment Originate from ulna/radius &inteross membrane; do not cross elbow
Movements of the Anterior Forearm Abduct/ adduct wrist; Flex wrist; Flex MCP/ IP joints; Pronate forearm
Movements of the Posterior Forearm Abduct/ adduct wrist; Extend wrist; Extend MCP/ IP joints; Supinate forearm
Three compartments of hand muscles Thenar (thumb); Hypothenar (little finger); Central (everything else)
Compression of median n. (as in carpal tunnel syndrome) causes: atrophy of thenar eminence
Extensors digitorum & digiti minimi form what on dorsal digit surface? Extensor hoods
Palmaris longus is absent in how many people? 15%
Flexor digitorum tendons: tendon of deeper muscle will: cross more joints
Tendons of FDP pass through: gap in FDS to reach distal phalanx
Flexor digitorum tendons: held tightly to digits with: fibrous digital sheaths
Flexor digitorum tendons: Lubrication of tendons provided by: synovial sheaths
Carpal tunnel: roof = flexor retinaculum
Carpal tunnel: Walls/ floor = carpal arch
Carpal tunnel contains 10 structures: 4 tendons FDS; 4 tendons FDP; 1 tendon FPL; Median n.
Extensor retinaculum: function Holds tendons of extensors in place
Extensor retinaculum = tendons surrounded by synovial sheaths
Common site of synovial (ganglionic) cysts Extensor retinaculum
Medial epicondylitis is due to: overpronation (golfers elbow)
Lateral epicondylitis is due to: oversupination (tennis elbow)
Borders of cubital fossa Lateral: brachioradialis mx; medial: pronator teres mx
Contents of cubital fossa brachial artery; Median n.; median cubital vein.
Flexor retinaculum: proximal skin crease = radiocarpal joint
Flexor retinaculum: distal skin crease = proximal edge of FR
Carpals that articulate with radius = Scaphoid & lunate
Most commonly injured carpals Scaphoid (fracture) & Lunate (dislocation )
Movements of the Fingers MCP joints: Flexion/ extension; Abduction/ adduction; IP joints: Flexion/ extension
Movements of the Thumb Flexion/ extension; abduction/ adduction; opposition
Hand: location of muscles All muscles on palmar (anterior) surface, none on dorsum
Condensation of deep fascia covering palm; anchored to skin = Palmar aponeurosis
Thenar muscles: form the thenar eminence (base of thumb)
Thenar muscles (3) Abductor pollicis brevis; Flexor pollicis brevis; Opponens pollicis
Hypothenar Muscles: form the: hypothenar eminence
Damage to ulnar nerve will cause: atrophy of hypothenar eminence
Anatomical Snuff Box: location Dorsolateral side of wrist/ hand
Anatomical Snuff Box: Lateral border = extensor pollicis brevis & abductor pollicis longus
Anatomical Snuff Box: Medial border = extensor pollicis longus
Anatomical Snuff Box: Floor = scaphoid
Anatomical Snuff Box: Contents = Radial artery
Avulsion injury of extensor digitorum tendon (usually extensor hood) = Mallet finger
Thickening of conn tissue; eventually leads to contracture of digits = Duputren contracture
Brachial a. branches into: Ulnar a.; Radial a.
Ulnar and radial arteries form: palmar arterial arches (Ulnar = superficial arch; Radial = deep arch)
Palmar arterial arches give off: digital arteries
Where brachial a. bifurcates just distal to cubital fossa
Position of superficial veins of forearm Superficial to deep fascia
Dorsal venous network = superficial veins of forearm (cephalic, basilic, median cubital)
Musculocutaneous n.: Motor anterior arm
Musculocutaneous n.: Sensory Lateral forearm
Median nerve: Motor most of anterior forearm, thenar muscles of hand
Median nerve: Sensory Lateral skin of hand
Ulnar nerve: Motor 1.5 muscles anterior forearm, most muscles of hand
Ulnar nerve: Sensory medial skin of hand
Radial nerve: Motor posterior arm & forearm
Radial nerve: Sensory posterior arm, forearm, and hand
All shoulder mx (except trapezius) innervated by: brachial plexus
Serratus anterior innervated by: long thoracic n.
Anterior arm mx (biceps, coracobrachialis, brachialis) innervated by: musculocutaneous n.
Triceps brachii innervated by: radial n.
Innervation of anterior forearm mostly median
Flexor carpi ulnaris innervation ulnar n.
Flexor digitorum profundus innervation 1/2 from ulnar nerve, 1/2 from median n.
Posterior forearm innervation All from radial n.
Thenar muscles innervation All from median n.
Hypothenar muscles innervation All from ulnar n.
Adductor pollicis mx innervation ulnar n.
Lumbrical muscles innervation Split: 1/2 from median, 1/2 from ulnar
Palmara interossei & dorsal interossei mx innervation ulnar n.
Hand: Ulnar nerve: Motor Hypothenar mx, Palmar/ dorsal interossei, Adductor pollicis, medial 2 lumbricals
Hand: Ulnar nerve: Sensory Medial hand (dorsal & palmar)
Hand: Median nerve: Motor Thenar muscles; Lateral 2 lumbricals
Hand: Median nerve: Sensory Lateral hand
Radial n. innervation of hand Sensory only to postero-lateral hand
Created by: Abarnard