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Ch. 6 Digestion

Apologia Health & Nutrition

QuestionAnswer
Epithelium called mucosa the lining of the digestive system
Sphincters valves between organs that keep the contents in the organ until that stage of digestion is complete
Digestive Enzymes (1) are made by the salivary glands, the stomach, the small intestine, and the pancreas (2) target specific nutrients and are usually named by combining that nutrient and the suffix -ase (3) are released into the digestive system through either crypts or ducts
Arrangement of teeth: it is the same in each quadrant of the mouth Here is the order of the teeth from the front to the back of the mouth in one quadrant: (1) incisors (2) a canine (3) premolars (4) molars
Tooth Anatomy: The Truth About Each Part (1) Crown: the part that is visible in the mouth (2) Enamel: the crown (the part that is visible) is covered with this thick, smooth coating of calcium mineral which is the hardest substance in the body (3) Dentin: the rest of the tooth is made of this substance-less dense calcium substance. This is under the enamel coat. (4) Root: part of the tooth encased in a socket in the jawbone. The root is longer than the crown and attaches to the root socket.
Saliva: Its Purpose & The Truth About It (1) The consistency of saliva changes depending on the person's stress. (2) Saliva contains minerals that can rejuvenate the surface of the teeth. (3) Saliva contains digestive enzymes that start the breakdown of starch.
Satiety: the feeling of satisfaction from having eaten enough food (a brain function) How do you train yourself to not overeat and give your body enough time to signal that it has all it needs? Take small bites, chew thoroughly, and waits a half hour before getting seconds. Eating quickly and not chewing thoroughly may result in a person eating far more than is needed because he/she is not aware of satiety.
Swallowing involves closing off the airway above and below the pharynx (throat)
Read the blue writing labeled "Choking and Abdominal Thrusts" pg. 161. Understand the steps. (1) Get the person's permission first by asking if she needs help. (TRUE) (2) Find the person's umbilicus (navel) with your finger and encircle the person with your arms. (TRUE) (3) Press your fist only once into the abdomen and then release. (FALSE) (4) Press your fist repeatedly into the abdomen until the object is expelled. (TRUE)
The Stomach: Its main occupation is food storage. Chyme: the bolus (food becomes more easily shaped-a swallowable mass) changes into smooth slurry within the stomach.
What is the difference between food poisoning and gastroenteritis? food poisoning: the presence of harmful bacteria or their toxins (poisons) in food. (the most common cause of nausea and vomiting) Usually involves illness for several people who ate the same food at a party or restaurant. gastroenteritis: nausea over several days and can't eat. Chills, fever, or headache with no desire to do anything but lie down and rest. An infection of bacteria or viruses in the mucosa of the digestive tract. This "stomach bug" usually clears up in 1 or 2 days.
stomach ulcers and duodenal ulcers caused by bacteria
The 3 Jobs of the Small Intestine (1) absorption of the nutrients (2) digesting big molecules into smaller nutrients using specific enzymes (3) neutralizing the stomach acid
What does the liver do? changes toxic substances in the blood into less toxic substances
What does the pancreas do? produces enzymes for digesting protein that are inactive until they reach the small intestine
What does the large intestine do? where chyme is formed into feces
What does the microbiome of the large intestine do? contributes vitamins for the person to absorb
What does it mean to have "regularity?" Feces are passed from the body once or twice a day in a healthy individual.
What are pinworms? (a parasite)-They are less than half an inch in length and appear in the feces as thin white threads. Produce an uncomfortable itch in the anus because they lay eggs in the skin folds of the anus.
Kidneys: cleansing all the blood in the body every 25 minutes Which is part of the filtering of the blood by the kidney? A tubule in each nephron selectively reabsorbs nutrients and water from the filtered-out fluid and returns them to the blood.
electrolytes salts necessary for many functions of the body
lithotripsy the use of strong sound waves to break up a kidney stone
renal pelvis the part of the kidney that collects the urine before narrowing to form a tube
ureter a tube from the kidney to the urinary bladder
urethra a tube from the bladder to the outside of the body
urinary bladder an organ that, when empty, is about the size of the thumb
urinary tract infection (UTI) How you avoid them: Drink plenty of water Careful toilet hygiene
Why do some people get kidney stones? low water intake genetics-a family tendency kidney infection