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Anat1 - Muscle A&P

(Week 4)

The three types of muscle tissue are: skeletal, cardiac, smooth
_______ and _______ muscle cells are elongated and are called muscle fibers. skeletal, smooth
Muscle contraction depends on two kinds of myofilaments -- _______ and _______. actin, myosin
_______ muscle tissue has obvious striations, is controlled voluntarily, contracts rapidly but tires easily, and is responsible for overall body motility. skeletal
_______ muscle tissue only occurs in the heart, and is striated but not voluntary. cardiac
_______ muscle tissue is found in the walls of hollow visceral organs, is not striated, and is involuntary. smooth
The function of skeletal muscles are: locomotion, maintain posture, stabilize joints, generate heat
The function of cardiac muscle is: coursing the blood through the body
The function of smooth muscle is: maintain blood pressure, squeeze/propel substances through organs
Muscle _______ are elongated multinucleate cells with striations, surrounded by endomyceum. fibers
Muscle _______ are discrete bundles of muscle cells surrounded by perimysium. fascicles
Each individual muscle is a collection of _______ bound together fascicles
_______: an overcoat of dense regular connective tissue that surrounds the entire muscle epimysium
_______: fibrous connective tissue that surrounds groups of muscle fibers called fascicles perimysium
_______: fine sheath of connective tissue composed of reticular fibers surrounding each muscle fiber endomysium
Most skeletal muscles span _______ and are attached to _______ in at least ____ places. joints, bone, 2
When muscles contract the movable bone, the muscle's _______ moves toward the immovable bone, the muscle's _______. insertion, origin
In extremities, the _______ is typically proximal to the _______. origin, insertion
Muscles attach directly to bone when the _______ of the muscle is fused to the _______ of a bone or perichondrium of cartilage. epimysium, periosteum
Muscles attach _______ when the connective tissue wrappings extend beyond the muscle as a tendon or aponeurosis that anchors muscle to the connective tissue covering of bone, cartilage, or the fascia of other muscles. indirectly
Contracting muscle fibers require a continuous delivery of _______ and _______ via arteries. oxygen, nutrients
________: the smallest contractile unit of a muscle sarcomeres
________: densely packed, rodlike contractile elements that make up most of the muscle volume. myofibrils
The major muscle that produces a specific motion or maintains a specific posture is called a _______ _______. prime mover
A _______ leads to a movement in the same direction which helps the prime mover function more efficiently by reducing unnecessary movement. synergist
Muscle that counteracts the prime mover (lengthening when the prime mover contracts) is called a(n) _______. antagonist
_______ work to stabilize the origin of the prime mover so that the prime mover can act more efficiently or eliminate unwanted motions. stabilizers or fixators
Muscles that fix a joint in a given position during the movement of other joints are called _______. fixators
The _______ _______ is the large mass of muscle that powers the work of the movement. muscle belly
_______ contraction: muscle tension increases isometric
_______ contraction: muscle length changes isotonic
Muscles that control fine movements (fingers, eyes) have _______ motor units. small
Large weight-bearing muscles (thighs, hips) have _______ motor units. large
_______ _______ is the constant, slightly contracted state of all muscles, which does not produce active movements. Muscle tone
The two types of isotonic contractions are _______ and _______. concentric (the muscle shortens and does not work), eccentric (the muscle lengthens as it contracts)
In _______ chain joint movements, the proximal joint member is fixed or stable while the distal member moves. open
In _______ chain joint movements, the distal joint member is fixed or stable while the proximal member moves. closed
Reaching to grasp an object in space, or kicking a ball are examples of _______ chain movements. open
The stance phase of walking involves _______ chain movements, as do riding from a chair or performing a pull up. closed
Created by: sdouglass