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chapter 6: eastham

QuestionAnswer
contractility the ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force.
excitability the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus.
extensibility the ability to be stretched
elasticity ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched.
what are the four main characteristics of the skeletal system. contractility, excitability, elasticity, extensibility
epimysium connective tissue sheath surrounding skeletal muscle.
fascia another connective tissue located outside the epimysium. surrounds and separates muscles.
perimysium loose connective tissue that surrounds muscle fascicle.
fibers muscle cells
endomysium connective tissue surrounding each fiber
myofibrils a threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other
actin myofilaments thin myofilaments
myosin myofilaments thick myofilaments
sarcomeres actin and myosin myofilaments that form highly ordered units
resting membrane potential the charge difference across the membrane
action potential the brief reversal back of the charge
motor neurons nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers
neuromuscular junction or synapse each branch the connects to the muscle
motor unit a single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates
presynaptic terminal enlarged nerve terminal
synaptic cleft the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell
postsynaptic terminal muscle fiber
synaptic vesicles secretes a neurotransmitter
acetylcholine secreted by synaptic vesicles
acetlycholinesterase released into the synaptic cleft between the neuron and the muscle cell rapidly broken down by enzymes
sliding filament mechanism the sliding actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction
muscle twitch a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus
threshold a muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until it reaches the threshold
all-or-none response when the muscle fiber reaches the threshold
lag phase the time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction
contraction phase the time of the contraction
relaxation phase the time during which the muscle relaxes
tetany where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing
recruitment the increase in numbers of motor units being activated
ATP needed for energy for muscle contraction
ATP produced in the mitochondria
ADP adenosine diphosphate
creatine phosphate high energy molecule
anaerobic respiration without oxygen
aerobic respiration with oxygen
oxygen debt amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions
muscle fatigue when ATP is used during muscle contraction
isometric equal distance
isotonic equal tension
muscle tone constant tension produced by muscles
fast twitch fibers contract quickly and fatigue quickly
slow twitch fibers contract more slowly
origin head
insertion undergoing the greatest movement
belly between the origin and the insertion
some muscles have multiple origins
synergists muscles that work together
antagonists muscles that work in opposition
prime mover a muscle that plays the major role.
occipitofrontalis raises the eyebrows
orbicularis oculi closes the eyelids
orbicularis oris puckers the lip
buccinator flattens the cheeks
zygomaticus smiling
levator labii superioris sneering
depressor anguli oris frowning
mastication chewing
intrinsic tongue muscle changes the shape
extrinsic tongue muscle moves the tongue
sternocleidomastoid neck muscle and prime mover
thoracic muscles muscles that move the thorax
diaphragm quiet breathing
tendinous inscriptions cross the rectus
trapezius rotates scapula
pectoralis major flexes the arm
latissimus dorsi extends the arm
deltoid attaches the humerus to the scapula
flexor carpi flexes wrist
extensor carpi extends the wrist
gluteus maximus butt
Created by: tamacri1