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Anatomy Ch.6 Muscles

ability to shorten with force contractility
capacity to respond to stimulus excitability
ability to be stretched extensibility
ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched elasticity
Why do muscle produce heat? maintain normal body temperature
surrounds each skeletal muscle epimysium
epimysium connective tissue sheath
located outside the epimysium fascia
fascia surrounds and separates muscles
composed of fascicle a muscle
surrounds the visible bundles of the muscle perimysium
Fasciculi are composed of fibers
fibers are single muscle cells
each muscle fiber is a single cylindrical cell
What does each muscle fiber contain? several nuclei
surrounds each fiber endomysium
endomysium connective tissue sheath
cytoplasm of each fiber is filled with myofibrils
myofribils are a threadlike structure that connects one end of the fiber to the other
How many major kinds of protein fibers do mypfibrils consist of? 2
thin myofilaments actin myofilaments
thick myofilaments myosin myofilaments
Actin myofilaments resemble pearls twisted together
Myosin myofiliments resemble bundles of golf clubs
What are the 2 protein fibers that are in the mtofibrils? Actin and myosin myofilaments
highly formed units made form actin and myosin myofilaments sarcomeres
joined end to end to form what? myofibril
The sarcomere is the basic structural and functional unit of the muscle
The z line is the attachment site for what? a actin
A sarcomere extends from what? one z line to another z line
one each side of the z line there is a light area called an I band
What does the I band contain? actin
What is the darker central region of the sarcomere? the a band
What does the a band contain? myosin
What lies between two A bands? the H zone
What does the H zone contain? myosin
What extends from the H zone? the M line
What does the M line contain? myosin
The outside of most cell membranes are positively charged
The inside of the cell membrane is negatively charged
The change difference across the membrane is called the resting membrane potential
The brief reversal back of a stimulated muscle is called action potential
Nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers motor neurons
Where do axons enter? the muscles
What branches and connects to muscle forms? axons
What does each branch and connected muscle form? neuromusclular junction
Another name for neuromusclular junction synapse
Where is the synapse located? near the center of the cell
a single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates are called a motor unit
What do many motor units form? a single muscle
What forms a neuromusclular junction? an enlarged nerve terminal resting in an indentation of the muscle membrane
What is the enlarged nerve terminal? the presynaptic terminal
What is the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell called? synaptic cleft
the muscle fiber is called the postsynaptic terminal
What does each presynaptic terminal contain? synaptic vesicles
What do the synaptic vesicles secrete? a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine
Where does the acetylcholine diffuse? across the synaptic cleft
What does the acetylcholine bind to? the postsynaptic terminal
What does the acetylcholine change? the postsynaptic cell
raises the eyebrows occipitofrontalis
closes the eyelids and causes "crows feet" wrinkles in the skin of the lateral corners of the eye orbicularis oculi
puckers the lips orbicularis oris
flattens the cheeks (trumpeter's muscle) buccinator
what are the two kissing muscles? the orbicularis oris and buccinator
smiling muscle zygomaticus
sneering muscle levator labii superious
frowning muscle depressor anguli oris
chewing mastication
How many mastication muscles? 4 pairs (2 pairs of pterugoids, temporalis, and masseter
change the shape of the tongue intrinsic tongue muscles
moves the tongue extrinsic tongue muscles
lateral neck muscle, prime mover, and rotates and abducts the head sternocleidomastoid
relaxes muscle acetylcholinesterase
The sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments durin contraction are called? sliding filament mechanism
a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes action potential in one or more muscle fibers? muscle twitch
Created by: pmay2



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