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Chapter 6 muscles

To shorten develop tension; an ability highly developed in muscle cells Contraction
Muscle cells Muscle fibers
Muscle composed of cylindrical multi nucleate cells with obvious striations; the muscle(s) attached to the body's skeleton; also called voluntary muscle Skeletal Muscle
the thin connective tissue surrounding each muscle cell Endomysium
The connective tissue enveloping bundles of muscle fibers Perimysium
the sheath of fibrous connective tissue surrounding muscle Epimysium
A bundle of nerve or muscle fibers bound together by connective tissue Fascicle
muscle consisting of spindle-shaped unstripped (non striated) muscle cells; involuntary muscle smooth muscles
specialized muscle of the heart cardiac muscle
ovalnucle; that can be seen just beneath the plasma membrane Sarcolemma
the smallest contractile unit of muscle; extends from one A disc to the next Sarceamere
One of the principal contractile protiens found in muscle Myosin
A contractile protien Actin
A specialized smooth endoplasmic reticulum Sarcoplasmic reticulum
one neuron and all the skeletal muscle cell sit stimuates Motor unit
The ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force Contractility
The capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus excitability
The ability to be stretched extensibility
Ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched elasticity
Each skeletal musce is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath epimysium
Another connective tissue located outside the epimysium. It surrounds and separates muscles Fascia
A muscle is composed of numerous visible bundles called muscle fasciculi, which are surrounded by loose connective tissue Perimysium
The fasciculi are composed of single muscle cells fibers
A single cylindrical cell containing several nuclei Muscle fibers
Each fiber is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath endomysium
The cytoplasm of each fiber is filled with ________- a threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other myofibrils
Myofibrils consist of __ major kinds of protein fibers 2
Thin myofilaments. They resemble 2 minute strands of pearls twisted together Actin myofliaments
Thick myofilaments. They resemble bundles of minute golf clubs. myosin myofilaments
Actin and myosin myofilaments form highly ordered units _______ which are joined end to end to form the myofibril. sarcomeres
The basic structural and functional unit of the muscle. Sarcomere
Muscle contraction Occurs as actin and myosin myofilaments slide past one another causing the sarcomeres to shorten. When the sarcomeres shorten it causes the muscle to shorten.
The sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction sliding filament mechanism
A contraction of n entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers Muscle twitch
A muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level called ______, at which point the muscle fiber will contract maximally. This phenomenon is called the ______________ Threshold; all-or-none response
The time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction lag phase
The time of contraction contraction phase
The time during which the muscle relaxes relaxation phase
where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing tetany
The increase in number of motor units being activated recruitment
needed for energy for muscle contraction ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
Produced in the mitochondria ATP
Short-lived and unstable ATP
It degenates to the more stable _______________________ plus phosphate ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate)
It is necessary for muscle cells to constantly produce ATP. When at rest they can't stockpile ATP but they can store another high-energy molecule called ______________________ Creatine phosphate
Without oxygen Anaerobic respiration
with oxygen Aerobic respiration
results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it van be produced in the muscle cells Muscle fatigue
The length of the muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process. Isometric (equal distance)
The amount of tension produce by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle change Isotionic (equal tension)
__________ refers to constant tension produced by muscle of the body for long periods of time. Keeps head up and back straight. Muscle tone
contract quickly and fatigue quickly. Well adapted to preform anaerobic metabolism. Ex. white meat of a chicken's breast. Fast-twitch fibers
contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue. They are better suited for aerobic metabolism Slow-twitch fibers
is the most stationary end of the muscle Origin
is the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement Insertion
The portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion is the Belly
some muscles have multiple _________________________ Origins or heads
Muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements are Synergists
Muscles that work in opposition to one another are Antagonists
Among a group of synergists, if one muscle plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement Prime mover
raises the eyebrows Occipitofrontalis
closes the eyelids and causes "crows feet" wrinkles in the skin at the lateral corners of the eye Orbicularis Oculi
Puckers the lips Orbicularis Oris
Flattens the cheeks. Trumpeter's muscle. Buccinator
Kissing muscles Orbicularis Oris and Buccinator
smiling muscle Zygomaticus
sneering Levator labii superioris
Frowning Depressor anguli oris
Chewing Mastication
Change the shape of the tongue Intrinsic tongue muscles
Move the tongue Extrinsic Tongue muscles
Lateral neck muscle and prime mover Sternocleidomastoid
Muscles that move the thorax Thoracic Muscles
Group of muscles on each side of the neck Erector spinae
How many pairs of mastication are there? 4 pairs
Created by: tnpick513



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