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Chapter 6

Ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force Contractility
The capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus Excitability
The ability to be stretched Extensibility
Ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched Elasticity
Each skeletal muscle is surrounded by connective tissue sheath epimysium
Connective tissue located outside the epimysium Fascia
numerous visible bundles called muscle fasciculi perimysium
Fasciculi are composed of single muscle cells fibers
Each fiber is surrounded by a connective sheath endomysium
The cytoplasm of each fiber is filled with myofibrils
Thin myofilaments. They resemble 2 minute strands of pearls twisted together actin myofilaments
Thick myofilaments. They resemble bundles of minute golf clubs myosin myofilaments
Actin and myosin myofilaments form highly ordered units sarcomeres
basic structural and functional unit of a muscle sacromere
sacromere extends from one z line to another z line
On each side of the z line is a light area I band
The A band extends the length of the ________. It is the darker region in each sacromere. myosin
In the center of each sacromere is another light area. Consists of only myosin H zone
The myosin myofilaments are anchored in the center of the sarcomere at a dark staining band called The M line
The charge difference across the membrane is called resting membrane potential
When a muscle cell is stimulated the membrane characteristics change briefly action potential
nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers Motor neurons
Axons enter the muscles and branch. Each branch that connects to muscle forms a Neuromuscular junction or synapse
single mototr neuron and skeletal muscle fibers that innervates it motor unit
enlarged nerve terminal presynaptic terminal
space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell synaptic cleft
muscle fiber postsynaptic terminal
in each presynaptic terminal synaptic vesicles
neurotransmitter acetylcholine
acetylcholine between the neuron and muscle cell is broken down by __________ enzymes. acetylcholinesterase
the sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments sliding filament mechanism
contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus muscle twitch
muscle fiber wont respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a certain level called ___________. threshold
muscle fiber will contract maximally all or none response
time between a stimulus to a motor neuron and beginning of contraction lag phase
time of contraction contraction phase
when the muscle relaxes relaxation phase
where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing tetany
increase in number of motor units being activated recruitment
needed for energy for muscle contraction. produced in the mitochondria. short lived and unstable. ATP
more stable and plus phosphate ADP
high energy molecule creatine phosphate
without oxygen Anaerobic respiration
with oxygen Aerobic respiration
amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose and to replenish creatine phosphate in muscle cells oxygen debt
ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells muscle fatigue
amount of tension that increases during the contraction process isometric
muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle changes isotonic
tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time muscle tone
contract quickly and fatigue quickly. perform anaerobic metabolism. Fast twitch fibers
contract slowly. aerobic metabolism slow twitch fibers
most stationary end of the muscle origin
end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement insertion
portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion is the ___________. belly
muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements synergists
Muscles that work in opposition to one another antagonists
A muscle that plays a major role in movement prime mover
raises the eyebrows occipitofrontalis
neck muscle sternocleidomastoid
A group of muscles on each side of the back. Responsible for keeping the back straight Trunk muscles. Erector Spinae
elevate the ribs during inspiration external intercostals
contract during forced expiration Internal intercostals
Accomplishes quiet breathing. Dome shaped muscle. Aids in breathing diaphragm
Anterior abdominal wall flex and rotate the vertebral column, compress the abdominal cavity, and hold in the abdominal viscera. Abdominal wall muscles
tendinous area of the abdominal wall. White connective tissue rather than muscle. linea alba
On each side of the linea alba rectus abdominus
cross the rectus abdominus at three or more locations, causing the abdominal wall of a well muscled person to appear segmented. tendinous inscriptions
layers of muscle from superficial to deep external abdominal oblique, internal abdominal oblique, and transverses abdominis muscles.
rotates scapula trapezius
pulls scapula anteriorly Serratus anterior
The arm is attached to the thorax by the pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles
adducts and flexes the arm pectoralis major
medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm latissimus dorsi
attaches the humerous to the scapula deltoid
extends the forearm. Occupies the posterior compartment of the arm Triceps brachii
flexes the forearm. Occupies the anterior compartment of the arm. biceps brachii
flexes forearm brachialis
flexes and supinates the forearm brachioradialis
strong band of fibrous connective tissue that covers the flexor and extensor tendons retinaculum (bracelet)
flexes the wrist flexor carpi
extends the wrist extensor carpi
flexes the fingers flexor digitorum
extends the fingers extensor digitorum
19 hand muscles intrinsic hand muscles
hip muscle and common injection site gluteus medius
extends the leg quadriceps femoris
flexes the thigh sartorius
posterior thigh muscles hamstring
form the calf muscle gastrocnemius and soleus
Lateral muscles of the leg peroneus
20 muscles located within the foot intrinsic foot
Created by: MorganBaldwin01



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