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Chapter 6: Muscles

Ability to shorten with force Contractility
Responds to stimuli Excitability
Ability to be stretched Extensibility
Ability to recoil back to normal shape after being stretched Elasticity
Skeletal muscle is surround by Epimysium
Located outside the epimysium & surrounds and separates muscles Facia
Muscle fascicles are surrounded by Perimysium
Muscles cells Fibers
Muscle fibers are surrounded by Endomysium
2 major protein fibers Actin myofilaments & Myosin myofilaments
Actin myofilaments thin, and resembles twisted pearls.
Myosin Myofilaments thick, resembles bundles of minute golf clubs
Sarcomeres highly ordered units of actin and myosin myofilaments.
positively chraged outside of cell membranes
negatively charged inside of cell membrane
membrane potential the charge difference across the membrane
action potential the brief reversal back of the charge
motor nuerons nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers
presynaptic terminal enlarged nerve terminal
synaptic cleft space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell
acetylcholine diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to the postsynaptic terminal causing a change in the postsynaptic cell
acetylcholinesterase breaks down acetylcholine
sliding filament mechanism sliding action of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction
muscle twitch contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers
threshold point which the muscle fiber will contract maximally
lag phase beginning of contraction
contraction phase time of contraction
relaxation phase time the muscle relaxes
tetany where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing
recruitment the increase in number of motor units being activated
ATP needed for energy for muscle contraction, produced by mitochondria, short lived and unstable
creatine phosphate high-energy molecule
Anaerobic respiration without oxygen
aerobic respiration with oxygen and is more efficient
oxygen debt amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose
muscle fatigue results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced
isometric length of muscle does not change but the amount of tension increases
isotonic the amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant but the length changes
muscle tone refers to constant tension produced by muscles
fast twitch fibers contract quickly
slow twitch fibers contract more slowly
origin most stationary end of muscle
insertion part of muscle undergoing the greatest movement
belly portion between the origin and insertion
muscles that work together synergists
muscles that do not work together antagonist
occipitofrontalis raises eyebrows
orbicularis oculi closes eyelids and causes ''crows feet''
orbicularis oris pucker lips
buccinator flattens the cheeks
kissing muscles orbicularis and buccinator
zygomaticus smiling muscle
levator labii superioris sneering
depressor anguli oris frowning
chewing mastication
intrinsic tongue muscles change shape of tongue
extrinsic tongue muscles move the tongue
neck muscles sternocleidomastoid
sternocleidomastoid prime mover rotates and abducts head
erector spinae group of muscles on each side of the back
most involved in breathing external intercostals and internal intercostals
external intercostals elevate the ribs during inspiration
internal intercostals contract during forced expiration
diaphragm accomplishes quiet breathing dome shaped muscle aids in breathing
trapezius rotates scapula
serratus anterior pulls scapula anteriorly
pectoris major adducts and flexes the arm
latissimus adducts and powerfully extends the arm
deltoid attaches humorous to scapula and clavicle
brachialis flexes forearm
flexor carpi flexes the wrist
extensor carpi extends the wrist
flexor digitorum flexes the fingers
extensor digitorum extends the fingers
gluteus maximus buttocks
Created by: addibutcher



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