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Chapter 6 Muscles

to develop tension, an ability highly developed in muscle cells Contraction
muscle cells Muscle fibers
Muscle composed of cylindrical multinucleated cells with obvious striations Skeletal Muscles
The thin connective tissue surrounding each muscle cells Endomysium
The connective tissue enveloping bundles of muscle fibers Perimysium
the sheath of fibrous connective tissue surrounding a muscle Epimysium
A bundle of nerve or muscle fibers bound together by connective tissue Facicle
Muscle consisting of spindle shaped unstripped muscle cells Smooth muscle
Specilized muscle of the heart Cardiac muscle
The fine transparent tublar sheath which envelops the fibers of skeletal muscles Sarcolemma
The smallest contactile unit of muscle Sarcomere
one of the contractile protien fountin muscle Myosin
a contractile protien Actin
Specialized smooth endoplasmic reticulium Carcoplasmic Reticulum
A motor and all the muscle cells it supplies Motor unit
Neuron process that carries impulses away from the nerve cell body Axon
A chemicle transmitter substance released by certian nerve endings Acetylenoline
When a muscle is unable to contract even when stimulated Muscle Fatigue
Same tone or tension Isotonic Contractions
Same measurments or length Isometric Contractions
Attachment of a muscle that remains reletivly fixed durning muscular contraction Origin
The moveable attachment of a muscle as opposed to its origin Insertion
Muscles cooperating with another muscle or muscle group to produce a disired movement Synergists
Muscles that act in opposiion to a prime mover antagonists
Muscles acting to immoblize a joint or bone Fixators
another connective tissue layer located outside the epimysium Fascia
enzymes that break down acetylcholine acetylcholinesterase
sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction Sliding filament mechanism
a contracttion of an entire muscle in responce to stimulus. Muscle twitch
the time between application of a stimulius to a motor neuron lag phase
time of contraction contraction phase
time of relaxion relaxion phase
the muscle remains contracted without relaxing tetany
the increase in number of motor units recruitment
Adenosine triphosphate (needed for energy for muscle contraction, produced in the mitochondria, and short lived and unstable.) ATP
Adenosine Diphosphate (plus phosphate) ADP
when muscle cells cant stockple ATP at rest but can store other high energy molecules Creatine phosphate
without oxygen Anaerobic respiration
with oxygen aerobic resperation
the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose Oxygen debt
results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells. Muscle fatigue
equal distance Isometric
equal tension Isotonic
constant tension produced by muscles muscle tone
white meat Fast twitch fibers
dark meat Slow twitch fibers
the portion of muscle between the origin and the insertion belly
How are muscles named? location, size, orientation of fibers, shape, origin, insertion, and function
the zone between the A bands H zone
The line that goes down the middle of the h zone M line
Bands that are on either side of the H zone, and doesn't move when contracted A band
The bands on either side of the Z line I band
The lines that separate each section Z line
raises eyebrows occipitofrontalis
closes eyelids and causes "Crows feet" wrinkles on the outer corner of the eyes. orbicularis oculi
pucker lips "Kissing muscle" orbicularis oris
flattens cheecks "Kissing muscle" buccinator
smiling muscle zygomaticus
sneering levator labii superioris
frowning depressor anguli oris
chewing, 2 pair of pterygoids, temporalis, and masseter mastication
whange the shape of the tongue intrinsic tongue muscles
move the tongue extrinsic tongue muscles
rotates and abducts the head, lateral neck miscle and prime mover sternocleidomastoid
group of muscles on each side of the back , responsible for keeping body erect or head straight erector spinae
muscles that move the thorax thoratic muscles
elevate the ribs during inspiration external intercostals
contract during forced expiration internal intercostals
accomplishes quiet breathing diaphragm
tendinous area of the abdominal wall linea alba
on each side of the linea alba rectus abdominis
cross the rectus abdominis at three or more places Tendonous inscriptions
rotates scapula Trapezius
pulls scapula anteriorly serratus anterior
adducts and flexes the arm Pectoralis major
medially rotates, addicts, nd powerfully extends the arm Latissimus dorsi
attackes the humerus to the scapula and clavicle deltoid
extends forearm, occupies the posterior compartment of the arm Triceps branchii
occupies the anterior compartment of the arm, flexes the forearm biceps branchii
flexes the forearm branchialis
flexes and supinates the forearm brachioradialis
covers flexor and extensor tendons retinaculum
flexes wrist flexor carpi
extends wrist extensor carpi
flexes fingers flexor digitorum
extends fingers extensor digitorum
19 hand muscles intrinsic hand muscles
Buttocks gluteus maximus
extends the leg, anterieor thigh muscles quadriceps femoris
flexes the thigh sartorius
posterior to the thigh muscles, flexes the leg and extends the thigh hamstring muscles
form the calf muscle gastrocneminus and soleus
achilles tendon, flex the foot and toes calcaneal tendon
20 muscles located in the foot instrinsic foot muscles
Created by: bkedwar1



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