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muscle stuff

QuestionAnswer
four characteristics of muscle functionality contractility, excitability, extensibility, and elasticity
contractility ability to shorten with force
excitability ability to respond to stimulus
extensibility ability to be stretch
elasticity ability to recoil to original state
something that muscles provide to the body heat
epimysium connective tissue that surrounds a muscle
fascia another tissue layer that rests above the epimysium
fascicle bundles of muscle fibers
perimysium layer of tissue that surrounds a fascicle
muscle fibers primary cell of a muscle
endomysium layer of tissue that surrounds a muscle fiber
myofibrils thread-like structure that composes muscle fibers
myofilaments protein fibers that compose myofibrils
actin myofilaments thin myofilament
myosin myofilaments thick myofilament
sarcomere units that join together to create myofibril
z line start of a sarcomere
i band band of light area on each side of a z line
a band band of dark area between the i band and the h zone
h zone center of a sacromere that consists of only myosin
m line dark line that goes down the middle of a sacromere
outside of cell membrane positively charged
inside of cell membrane negatively charged
resting membrane potential charge difference across a membrane
action potential brief reversal back of a charge on a membrane
motor neurons nerve cells that carry action potentials to muscle fibers
synapse also called a neuromuscular junction
motor unit a single motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers that it innervates
presynaptic terminal enlarged nerve terminal
synaptic cleft space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell
postsynaptic terminal muscle fiber
synaptic vesicles spaces in the presynaptic terminal that produce acetylcholine
acetylcholine chemical that actives the action potential within a muscle
sarcolemma muscle cell membrane
acetylcholinesterase enzyme that breaks downs acetylcholine
muscle contraction occurs when the myofilaments within muscle cells slide past each other
sliding filament mechanism causes contraction in a muscle. h and i bands shorten, but a bands stay the same
muscle twitch contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus
threshold the amount of stimulus required for a muscle to contract maximally
all or none responce point where the muscle contracts maximally
lag phase time between application of a stimulus and the beginning of contraction
contraction phase the overall time of contraction
relaxation phase the time when the muscle relaxes
tetany when the muscle remains contracted and does not relax
recruitment increase in number of motor neurons being activated
ATP Adenosine Triphosphate. Needed for energy for muscle contraction
ADP plus Phosphate Adenosine Diphosphate. ATP degenerates into this.
creatine phosphate high energy molecule that can be stored and used to create ATP.
anaerobic respiration without oxygen
aerobic respiration with oxygen
oxygen debt amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose and to replenish creatine phosphate levels in muscle cells
muscle fatigue when ATP is used up faster than it can be created
isometric when the length of a muscle doesnt change, but the amount of pressure put onto it increases
isotonic when the lenght of a muscle changes, but the amount of pressure remains constant
muscle tone constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time
fast twitch fibers contract quickly and fatigue quickly
slow twitch fibers contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue
origin the most stationary end of a muscle
insertion end of the muscle undergoing the most movement
belly portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion
synergists muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements
antagonists muscles that work against each other
prime mover a muscle that plays a major role in a group of synergists
names of muscles named according to their shape, location, size, orientation of fibers, origin, insertion, and function
Occipitofrontalis Raises the eyebrows
Orbicularis oculi closes the eyelids and causes crowsfeet
obicularis oris puckers the lips
buccinator flattens the cheeks
zygomaticus smiling muscle
levator labii superioris sneering
depressor anguli oris frowning
mastication chewing
4 muscles of mastication 2 pterygoids, temporalis, and masseter
intrinsic tongue muscles change the shape of the tongue
extrinsic tongue muscles moves the tongue
sternocleidomastoid lateral neck muscle and prime mover
Created by: jjenkins24