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Ch.6 Muscle

The ability to shorten with force Contractility
The ability to respond to stimulus Excitability
The ability to be stretched Extensibility
The ability to recoil to their original resting length Elasticity
Each skeletal muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath Epimysium
Connective tissue located outside the epimysium Fascia
The fasciculi are composed of single muscle cells Fibers
Muscle is composed of numerous visible bundles Fasciculi
Fasciculi are surrounded by loose connective tissue Perimysium
Each fiber is surrounded by connective tissue sheath Enndomysium
The cytoplasm of each fiber is filled with Myofibrils
A threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other Myofibrils
Myofibrils consist of 2 major kinds of protein fibers Actin Myofilaments Myosin Myofilaments
Thin myofilaments. They resemble 2 strands of pearls twisted together Actin Myofilaments
Thick myofilaments. They resemble bundles of golf clubs Myosin Myofilaments
Actin and myosin myofilaments form highly ordered units Sarcomeres
The basic structural and functional unit of the muscle Sarcomeres
The most stationary end of the muscle Origin
The end of the muscle undergoing of greatest movement Insertion
The portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion Belly
Can a muscle have more than one origins? Yes
Muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements Synergists
Muscles that work in opposition to one another Antagonists
Prime Mover
How are muscle named? By their location, size, orientation of fibers, shape, origin, insertion, and function.
Raises the eyebrows Occipitofrontalis
Closes the eyelids and causes "crows feet" wrinkles in the skin at the lateral corners of the eye Orbicularis oculi
Puckers the lips Orbicularis oris
Flattens the cheeks Buccinator
Smiling muscle Zygomaticus
Sneering Levator labii superioris
Frowning Depressor anguli oris
4 pairs of mastication muscles 2 pair of pterygoids, temporalis, and masseter
Change the shape of the tongue Intrinsic tongue muscle
Move the tongue Extrinsic tongue muscle
Lateral neck muscle and prime mover. Rotates and abducts the head Sternocleidomastoid
Nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers Motor Neurons
A single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates Motor Unit
Each presynaptic terminal contains Synaptic Vesicles
Synaptic vesicles secrete neurotransmitter Acetylcholine
The acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft between the neuron and muscle cell is rapidly broken down by enzymes Acetylcholinesterase
The sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction Sliding filament mechanism
A contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes he action potential in one or more muscle fibers Muscle twitch
A muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level Threshold
The time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of contraction Lag phase
The time of contraction Contraction phase
The time during which the muscle relaxes Relaxation phase
The muscle remain contracted without relaxing Tetany
Increase in number of motor units being activated Recruitment
Needed for energy for muscle contraction ATP
Produced in the mitchondria ATP
Without oxygen Anaerobic Respiration
With oxygen Aerobic Respiration
The amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose and to replenish he depleted stores of creatine phosphate stores in muscle cells Oxygen Debt
Results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells Muscle Fatigue
The two types of muscle contractions Isometric and Isotonic
The length of the muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process Isometric
The amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle changes Isotonic
Constant tension produced by muscle of the body for long period of time Muscle Tone
Contract quickly and fatigue quickly. Well adapted to perform anaerobic metabolism Fast-twitch fibers
Contracts more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue. They are better suited for aerobic metabolism Slow-twitch fibers
Elevate the ribs during inspiration External intercostals
Contract during forced expiration. Internal intercostals
Accomplishes quiet breathing. Dome-shaped muscle. Aids in breathing. Diaphragm
Tendinous area of the abdominal wall linea alba
Rotates scapula Trapezius
Pulls scapula anteriorly Serratus anterior
The arm is attached to the thorax pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles.
Adducts and flexes the arm Pectoralis major
Medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm. “Swimmer muscles” Latissimus dorsi
Attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle, and is the major abductor of the upper limb. Deltoid
Extends the forearm. Occupies the posterior compartment of the arm. Triceps brachii
Flexes the forearm. Occupies the anterior compartment of the arm. Biceps brachii
Flexes forearm Brachialis
Flexes and supinates the forearm. Brachioradialis
Created by: MaggieKayt



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