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muscle chapter

ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force contractility
capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus excitability
ability to be stretched extensibility
ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched elasticity
connective tissue sheath that surrounds each skeletal muscle epimysium
connective tissue located outside the epimysium that surrounds and separates muscles fascia
numerous visible bundles that make up the composition of a muscle fascicle
loose connective tissue that surrounds muscle fascicle perimysium
single muscle cells that make up fasciculi fibers
connective tissue sheath that surrounds each fiber endomysium
threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other myofibril
thin myofilaments; resemble pearls twisted together actin myofilaments
thick myofilaments; resemble bundles of minute golf clubs myosin myofilaments
basic structural and functional unit of the muscle sarcomere
charge difference across the membrane resting membrane potential
brief reversal back of the charge action potential
nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers motor neurons
what is formed by an enlarged nerve terminal resting in an indentation of the muscle cell membrane neuromusclular junction
another term for neuromusclular junction synapse
a single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates muscle unit
enlarged nerve terminal presynaptic terminal
space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell synaptic cleft
sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction sliding filament mechanism
contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers muscle twitch
the time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction lag phase
time of contraction contraction phase
time during which the muscle relaxes relaxation phase
where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing tetany
increase in number of motor units being activated recruitment
needed for energy for muscle contraction ATP
where is ATP produced mitochondria
what does ATP degenerate to ADP
another high-energy molecule that is stored when muscle cells can't stockpile ATP creatine phosphate
without oxygen anaerobic respiration
with oxygen (more efficient) aerobic respiration
after intense exercise, what does the respiration rate do? remains elevated
amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose and to replenish the depleted stores of creatine phosphate stores in muscle cells oxygen debt
what results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells muscle fatigue
length of the muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process isometric
amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle changes isotonic
keeps head up and back straight muscle tone
what can contract quickly and fatigue quickly? fast-twitch fibers
what can contract more slowly and is more resistant to fatigue slow-twitch fibers
points of attachment of each muscle origin, insertion
what is the muscle connected to at the point of attachment to the bone, by a tendon
most stationary end of the muscle origin
end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement insertion
portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion belly
true or false, muscles can have multiple origins or head? true
muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements synergists
muscles that work in opposition to one another antagonists
what is the erector spinae responsible for keeping the back straight and the body erect
group of muscles on each side of the back erector spinae
muscles that move the thorax thoracic muscles
elevates the ribs during inspiation external intercostals
contracts during forced expiration internal intercostals
dome-shaped muscle that aids in breathing diaphragm
area of abdominal wall that consists of white connective tissue linea alba
where is the rectus abdominis muscle located? on each side of the linea alba
at how many locations do tendinous inscriptions cross the rectus abdominis? three or more
rotates scapula trapezius
pulls scapula anteriorly serratus anterior
what attaches the arm to the thorax? pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles
adducts and flexes the arm pectoralis major
considered the "swimmer muscles" latissimus dorsi
major abductor of the upper limb deltoid
extends the forearm triceps brachii
flexes the forearm; occupies anterior compartment biceps brachii
flexes forearm brachialis
flexes and supinates the forearm brachioradialis
flexes wrist flexor carpi
extends the wrist extensor carpi
flexes the fingers flexor digitorum
extends the fingers extensor digitorum
number of intrinsic hand muscles 19
strong band of fibrous connective tissue that covers flexor retinaculum
buttocks gluteus maximus
extends the leg; anterior thigh muscles quadriceps femoris
flexes the thigh sartorius
posterior thigh muscles hamstring muscles
form calf muscle gastrocnemius and soleus
flexes foot and toes calcaneal tendon
lateral muscles of leg peroneus muscles
muscles that flex, extend, abduct, and adduct the toes intrinsic foot muscles
number of intrinsic foot muscles 20
Created by: les121902



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