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The Respiratory Sys

Ch 18 The Respiratory System

What are the four phases of respiration? pulmonary ventilation, external gas exchange, gas transport in the blood, and internal gas exchange.
What happens to air as it passes over the nasal mucosa? It is filtered, warmed, and moistened.
What are the three regions of the pharynx? nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx.
What are the scientific names for the throat, voice box, and windpipe? Throat- pharynx, voice box - larynx and windpipe - trachea
What structures do the inferior branching of the trachea form? 2 mainstem (primary) bronchi
What feature of the cells lining the respiratory passageways enables them to move impurities away from the lungs? Cilia
In what structures does gas exchange occur in the lung? Alveoli
What is the name of the membrane that encloses the lung? Pleura
What are two phases of quiet breathing? Which is active and which is passive? Inhalation and exhalation. Inhalation is active and exhalation is passive.
What substance produced by lung cells aids in compliance? Surfactant
What property of a gas determines its direction of diffusion across a membrane, and in what units is this property expressed? A gas's partial pressure on either side of a membrane. Partial pressure is expressed in millimeter mercury (mm Hg).
What substance in red blood cells holds almost all of the oxygen carried in the blood? Hemoglobin
What is the main form in which carbon dioxide is carried in the blood? Bicarbonate
Where in the brain stem are the centers that set the basic pattern of respiration? Medulla
What is the name of the motor nerve that controls the diaphragm? Phrenic nerve
What gas is the main chemical controller of respiration? Carbon dioxide
What is the meaning of the word ending -pnea? breathing
What are the names of six respiratory disorders caused by infection? common cold, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), coup, influenza, pneumonia, and tuberculosis
What are some causes of allergic rhinitis? Asthma? Pollen, dust, mold, and animal dander. Asthma may be caused by infection, fumes, smoke, cold air, allergies, and exercise.
What does COPD mean, and what two diseases are commonly involved in COPD? Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
The exchange of air between the atmosphere and the lungs is called pulmonary ventilation
The space between the vocal cords is the glottis
The ease with which the lungs and thorax can be expanded is termed compliance
A lower than normal level of oxygen in the tissues is called hypoxia
The serous membrane around the lung is the pleura
A decrease in the rate and dept of breathing hypopnea
A normal increase in breathing rate, as during exercise tachypnea
A temporary cessation of breathing apnea
Difficult or labored breathing dyspnea
Difficult breathing that is relieved by sitting up orthopnea
Which of the following are bony projections in the nasal cavity? conchae
Which structure contains the vocal folds? larynx
What covers the larynx during swallowing? epiglottis
Which structure has the centers that regulate respiration? brain stem
Which term describes incomplete lung expansion? atelectasis
Created by: Jessica Venyke



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