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Ch 25 Hereditary and Hereditary Diseases

What is a gene? What is a gene made of? A gene is an independent unit of heredity. Each gene is a segment of DNA contained in a chromosome.
What term describes a gene that always expresses its effect? A dominant gene is always expressed, regardless of the gene on the matching chromosome.
What is the difference between a genotype and a phenotype? A geneotype is the genetic makeup of an individual; a phenotype is all the traits that can be observed or tested for.
What is the process of cell division that forms the gametes? Meiosis
Human body cells have 46 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are in each gamete? 23
What sex chromosome combination determines a female? A male? XX female. XY male.
What term describes a trait carried on a sex chromosome? sex-linked
What is a mutagen? any agent that causes a mutation, a change in a gene or a chromosome.
From which parent does a child get mitochondrial genes? the mother.
What does the term congenital mean? Present at birth.
What is a teratogen? any agent that causes abnormal prenatal development.
What is the scientific name for Down syndrome? Trisomy 21
Is fragile X syndrome more common in males or females? Males
What kind of chart can show the inheritance pattern of a gene within a family? Pedigree chart
What are two procedures for removing fetal samples for study? Amniocentesis and chorionic villus
What is a karyotype? a picture of the chromosomes arranged in groups according to size and form.
auto self
chromo color
hetero other, different
homo same
pheno to show
multi many
cele swelling
con with
dactylo digit (finger or toe)
terato malformed fetus
centesis tapping, perforation
karyo nucleus
The basic unit of heredity is a gene
Chromosomes not involved in sex determination are known as autosomes
The number of chromosomes in each human cell is 46
Any change in a gene or chromosome is called mutation
Incomplete closure of the spine results in a disorder called spina bifida
An allele that is always expressed if present. dominant
An allele that is not always expressed if present. recessive
Term for paired alleles for a trait that are the same. homozygous
Term for paired alleles for a trait that are different. heterozygous
A gene carried on the X chromosome. sex-linked
What is a gene? a segment of DNA
What do genes code for? proteins
What are paired alleles for a given trait known as? alleles
What is the term for the genetic trait characterized by extra fingers and toes? polydactyly
Which technique is used to determine the genotypes of family members? a pedigree
Created by: Jessica Venyke



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