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APIC TEXT Glossary
|A protein that is produced by B cells & that tightly binds to the antigen of an invader, tagging the invader for attack or directly neutralizing it.
|Any substances that the immune system can recognize and can thus stimulate an immune response.
|B cell (B lympohcyte)
|A WBC that produces antibodies specific to the antigen that stimulated their production.
|A WBC that releases histamine (a substance involved in allergic reactions) & that produces substances to attract other white blood cells (neutrophils & eosinophils) to a trouble spot.
|The smallest unit of a living organism, composed of a nucleus & cytoplasm surrounded by a membrane.
|The process of using a chemical substance to attract cells to a particular site.
|A group of proteins that are involved in the complement cascade designed to defend the body ie. killing bacteria & other foreign cells, making foreign cells easier for macrophages to ID & ingest & attracting macrophages & neutrophils to a trouble spot.
|Proteins that are secreted by immune & other cells that act as the immune system's messengers to help regulate an immune response.
|A cell that is derived from WBC, resides in tissues, & helps T cells recognize foreign antigens.
|A WBC that kills bacteria, that kills other foreign cells to big to ingest, that may help immobilize & kill parasites, that participates in allergic reactions, & that may help destroy cancer cells.
|Helper T cell
|A WBC that helps B cells produce antibodies against foreign antigens, that helps killer T cells become active, & that stimulates macrophages.
|Literally, compatibility of tissue. Determined by human leukocyte antigens & used to determine whether a transplanted tissue or organ will be accepted by the recipient.
|Human leukocyte antigens (HLA)
|A group of ID molecules that are located on the surface of all cells in a combination that is almost unique for each person, thereby enabling the body to distinguish self from oneself. Also called the major histocompatibilty complex.
|An antibody attached to an antigen.
|The reaction of the immune system to an antigen.
|A type of messenger (cytokine)secreted by some WBC's to affect other WBC's.
|Killer (cytotoxic) T cell
|A T cell that attaches to infected cells & cancer cells & kills them.
|A WBC, such as a monocyte, a neutroph, an esoinophil, a basophil, or a lymphocyte (a B cell or T cell).
|The WBC responsible for acquired (specific) immunity, including producing antibodies (by B cells), distinguished self from oneself (by T cells), & killing infected cells & cancer cells (by killer T cells)
|A large cell that develops from a WBC called a monocyte, that ingests bacteria & other foreign cells, that helps T cells identify microorganisms & other foreign substances, & that is normally present in the lungs, skin, liver, & other tissues.
|Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
|A synonym for human leukocyte antigens.
|A cell in tissues that release histamine & other substances involved in inflammatory & allergic reactions.
|A group of atoms chemically combined to forma unique substance.
|Natural killer cell
|A type of WBC that can recognize & kill abnormal cells, such as certain infected cells & cancer cells, w/o having to first learn that the cells are abnormal.
|A WBC that ingests & kills bacteria & other foreign cells.
|A type of cell (such as neutrophil or macrophage) that ingests & kills or destroys invading microorganisms, other cells, & cell fragments.
|The process of a cell engulfing & ingesting an invading microorganism, another cell, or a cell fragment
|A molecule on a cell's surface or inside the cell that can ID specific molecules, which fit precisely in it as a key fits in its lock.
|Regulatory (suppressor) T cell
|A WBC that helps end an immune response.
|T cell (T lymphocyte)
|A WBC that is involved in acquired immunity & that may be 1 of 3 types: helper, killer (cytotoxic) or regulatory.