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APIC TEXT Glossary

TermDefinition
Antibody (immunoglobulin) A protein that is produced by B cells & that tightly binds to the antigen of an invader, tagging the invader for attack or directly neutralizing it.
Antigen Any substances that the immune system can recognize and can thus stimulate an immune response.
B cell (B lympohcyte) A WBC that produces antibodies specific to the antigen that stimulated their production.
Basophil A WBC that releases histamine (a substance involved in allergic reactions) & that produces substances to attract other white blood cells (neutrophils & eosinophils) to a trouble spot.
Cell The smallest unit of a living organism, composed of a nucleus & cytoplasm surrounded by a membrane.
Chemotaxis The process of using a chemical substance to attract cells to a particular site.
Complement system A group of proteins that are involved in the complement cascade designed to defend the body ie. killing bacteria & other foreign cells, making foreign cells easier for macrophages to ID & ingest & attracting macrophages & neutrophils to a trouble spot.
Cytokines Proteins that are secreted by immune & other cells that act as the immune system's messengers to help regulate an immune response.
Dendritic cell A cell that is derived from WBC, resides in tissues, & helps T cells recognize foreign antigens.
Eosinophil A WBC that kills bacteria, that kills other foreign cells to big to ingest, that may help immobilize & kill parasites, that participates in allergic reactions, & that may help destroy cancer cells.
Helper T cell A WBC that helps B cells produce antibodies against foreign antigens, that helps killer T cells become active, & that stimulates macrophages.
Histocompatability Literally, compatibility of tissue. Determined by human leukocyte antigens & used to determine whether a transplanted tissue or organ will be accepted by the recipient.
Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) A group of ID molecules that are located on the surface of all cells in a combination that is almost unique for each person, thereby enabling the body to distinguish self from oneself. Also called the major histocompatibilty complex.
Immune complex An antibody attached to an antigen.
Immune response The reaction of the immune system to an antigen.
Immunoglobulin An antibody
Interleukin A type of messenger (cytokine)secreted by some WBC's to affect other WBC's.
Killer (cytotoxic) T cell A T cell that attaches to infected cells & cancer cells & kills them.
Leukocyte A WBC, such as a monocyte, a neutroph, an esoinophil, a basophil, or a lymphocyte (a B cell or T cell).
Lymphocyte The WBC responsible for acquired (specific) immunity, including producing antibodies (by B cells), distinguished self from oneself (by T cells), & killing infected cells & cancer cells (by killer T cells)
Macrophage A large cell that develops from a WBC called a monocyte, that ingests bacteria & other foreign cells, that helps T cells identify microorganisms & other foreign substances, & that is normally present in the lungs, skin, liver, & other tissues.
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) A synonym for human leukocyte antigens.
Mast Cell A cell in tissues that release histamine & other substances involved in inflammatory & allergic reactions.
Molecule A group of atoms chemically combined to forma unique substance.
Natural killer cell A type of WBC that can recognize & kill abnormal cells, such as certain infected cells & cancer cells, w/o having to first learn that the cells are abnormal.
Neutrophil A WBC that ingests & kills bacteria & other foreign cells.
Phagocyte A type of cell (such as neutrophil or macrophage) that ingests & kills or destroys invading microorganisms, other cells, & cell fragments.
Phagocytosis The process of a cell engulfing & ingesting an invading microorganism, another cell, or a cell fragment
Receptor A molecule on a cell's surface or inside the cell that can ID specific molecules, which fit precisely in it as a key fits in its lock.
Regulatory (suppressor) T cell A WBC that helps end an immune response.
T cell (T lymphocyte) A WBC that is involved in acquired immunity & that may be 1 of 3 types: helper, killer (cytotoxic) or regulatory.
Created by: JRWeidenaar