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Ch 17 Immunity

Things to know about Immunity

What term describes the ability of an organism to overcome host defenses? Virulence
What constitutes the first line of defense against the invasion of pathogens? Innate barriers such as the skin, mucous membranes, body secretions and reflexes
What are two types of components in the second line of defense against infection? Innate cells and chemicals
What are the four signs of inflammation? Heat, redness, swelling, and pain
What are three ways that fever boosts the immune system? Stimulating phagocytes, increasing metabolism, and decreasing the ability of certain microorganisms to multiply.
What is adaptive immunity? An individual's power to resist or overcome any particular disease or its products. This immunity is acquired during a person's lifetime, usually from contact with a disease organism or a vaccine.
What is an antigen? Any foreign substance, usually a protein, that induces an immune response.
List four types of T cells. Cytotoxic, helper, regulatory, and memory.
What is the role of APCs in immunity? (Antigen presenting cells) - Take in and digest a foreign antigen. They then display fragments of the antigen in their plasma membrane along with self (MHC) antigens that a T cell can recognize.
What is an antibody? A substance produced in response to an antigen.
What type of cells produce antibodies? Plasma cells, derived from B cells
What is the difference between active and passive adaptive immunity? Active adaptive immunity involves a person's own immune system. Passive adaptive immunity depends on antibodies from an outside source.
What is the difference between natural and artificial adaptive immunity? Natural adaptive immunity results from contact with a disease organism or obtaining antibodies from an outside source without medical intervention. Artificial adaptive immunity results from administration of a vaccine or antiserum.
What is a vaccine? A prepared substance that induces an immune response.
What is a booster? A repeated inoculation given to increase antibodies to a disease.
What is an antiserum, and when are antisera used? An antibody prepared in an outside source, usually an animal. Antisera are used in emergencies to provide quick passive immunization against a disease organism, toxin, or venom.
What are four types of immune disorders? Allergy, autoimmunity, immune deficiency diseases, and multiple myeloma.
How does the immune system guard against cancer? Destroying abnormal cells in the process of immune surveillance.
What is the greatest obstacle to tissue transplantation from one person to another? The tendency of every organism to destroy foreign substances.
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The power of an organism to overcome its host's defenses is called virulence
Heat, redness, swelling, and pain are classic signs of inflammation
Any foreign substance that enters the body and induces an immune response is called antigen
All antibodies are contained in a portion of the blood plasma termed the gamma globulin fraction
Any substance capable of inducing an allergic reaction is called a allergens
Destroy foreign cells directly. cytotoxic T cells
Release interleukins, which stimulate other cells to join the immune response. helper T cells
Suppress the immune response in order to prevent overactivity. regulatory T cells
Recognize an antigen and start a rapid response if the antigen is contracted again. memory cells
Produce antibodies when activated by antigens. B cells
Which of the following is NOT part of barriers, the first line defense? complement
Which of the following is an active phagocyte? macrophage
Which cell matures in the thymus? T cell
What is an abnormal reactivity to one's own tissues called? autoimmunity
Allergy and autoimmunity are types of hypersensitivity
Created by: Jessica Venyke