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Final Exam/CHapters 12-17

The nervous system: -works with the endocrine system to maintain homeostasis. -communicates with the body via action potentials (nerve impulses). -is responsible for perceptions and behaviors. -initiates voluntary movements.
The autonomic nervous system is part of the PNS
What is the function(s) of the nervous system? -detecting stimuli -processing information -sending a response to muscles or glands
The dendrites of a neuron are the main receiving region of a neuron
Gray matter has its distinctive color due to myelination of axons. T/F FALSE
At a synapse, the neuron sending the signal towards the synapse is called the _______ neuron. presynaptic
Graded potentials: arise when ion movement causes a minor change in the resting membrane potential.
Which statement is NOT true about electrical synapses? they allow the movement of ion through desmosomes
Choose the statement below that accurately represents a significant feature of graded potentials. Like graded potentials can sum to create a larger graded potential.
Which neural circuit enables a single presynaptic stimulation to cause a postsynaptic cell to send a series of impulses? reverberating circuit
Neurogenesis -occurs in the embryonic brain. -occurs in the hippocampus even during adulthood. -is inhibited by neuroglial products in most areas of the CNS. -is inhibited by the absence of fetal growth stimulating factors.
Consider the cell body of a neuron. Through which types of ion channel might sodium enter the cell body? Check all that apply! ligand-gated channels leakage channels
Typically graded potentials occur in theā€¦ dendrites and cell body
Rabies virus and tetanus toxin use retrograde transport to travel backward along axons to reach the neuronal cell body. Retrograde transport is a type of slow axonal transport. T/F FALSE
If three depolarizing graded potentials and two hyperpolarizing graded potentials occur in a dendrite at the same instant, what is the summation of their potentials equivalent to? one depolarizing graded potential
How are neurotransmitters removed from the synaptic cleft? Diffusion Enzymatic degradation Uptake by cells
The regeneration tube guides the growth of a new axon from the proximal area across the injured area to the distal area where it replaces the original axon. T/F TRUE
The generation of a graded potential is by the momentary opening of mechanically-gated or ligand-gated channels
Which of the following ions pass through the resting neuronal cell membrane most easily? potassium
Sensory impulses are carried to the central nervous system by afferent neurons
A resting nerve fiber is polarized because the concentration of Na+ is higher on the outside and K+ is higher on the inside
At the neuromuscular junction, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine is excitatory
Multiple sclerosis involves a progressive destruction of the neuron's ___ myelin sheath
The spinal cord ends between the first and second lumbar vertebrae. This area is called the: conus medullaris
Spinal nerve C8 exits between which two vertebrae: C7 and T1
A mixed spinal nerve has: a posterior and anterior root
Which of the following are sensory tracts: anterior spinothalamic and posterior columns
Which of the following is NOT true regarding the operation of a stretch reflex? It is a polysynaptic reflex.
Injury to the common fibular nerve results in a condition known as: foot drop
The white matter of the spinal cord is: located around the outside
Which nerve from the cervical plexus causes contraction of the diaphragm? Phrenic
The ulnar nerve arises from which plexus? brachial
Pressure from the uterus during pregnancy sometime causes damage to the sciatic nerve
Which statement best describes the location of the cerebellum?
Which statement is false in reference to the cranial meninges? have three layers of the dura mater
Cerebral spinal fluid is produced in which structure(s)? choroid plexuses
The blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier does not allow any substances from the blood to enter the CSF. T/F FALSE
The reticular activating system (RAS) is a part of the reticular formation. The primary function of the descending fibers of the RAS is to maintain muscle tone. T/F TRUE
Which statement about the cerebellum is true? its prime function is to 'fine tune' motor function
Which of the following is true of the thalamus? it is a component of the diencephalon
A projection tract is one which: consists of axons that conduct nerve impulses to or from the cerebrum
Which of the following is a function of the basal nuclei? control subconscious contraction of skeletal muscles influence attention, memory and planning help initiate and terminate movements assist in regulating emotional behaviors
The primary visual area is located in which lobe of the brain? occipital
Subtle anatomical differences between each hemisphere in the brain is called: hemispheric lateralization
Which statement is true regarding cranial nerves? they are part of the peripheral nervous system
The primary difference between a sensory and a mixed cranial nerve is that a mixed cranial nerve has its origins within the CNS and the spinal cord. T/F FALSE
From which brain vesicle does the medulla oblongata develop? myelencephalon
Which is a true statement regarding the effects of aging on the brain? reflex times increase and brain mass declines
The trigeminal nerve has three branches: the ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular. All three branches contain somatic sensory fibers, but the mandibular also contains somatic motor fibers. T/F TRUE
Which cranial nerves do NOT have somatic motor fibers that control the extraocular muscles? Check all that apply!
Which of the following is a function of the vagus nerve? -supplies cardiac muscle+decreases heart rate -carries taste+somatic sensation from the epiglottis+pharynx -carries info about bp, blood pH and stretch in resp structures -controls the muscles involved in swallowing, coughing+voice production
Which of the following comparisons of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the somatic nervous system (SNS) is not true? the SNS contains motor neurons which are excitatory and inhibitory
Which of the following does not describe the autonomic nervous system?
The sympathetic division of the ANS is called the thoracolumbar division because:
Which organ is matched incorrectly with either its sympathetic or parasympathetic ganglion? urinary bladder - superior mesenteric ganglion
Which of the following neurotransmitters does not bind to adrenergic receptors? acetylcholine
The definition of autonomic tone is: the balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic activity
The Sympathetic division is associated with excitement or embarrassment. T/F TRUE
Which would be an example of a condition in the body not controlled by autonomic reflexes? tracking a bird flying by
Which of the following is NOT associated with autonomic dysreflexia? fingers and toes turning blue when a person is cold
The awareness of differences in the external or internal environment is defined as: sensation
Which of the following would not be considered to be a sensory modality? thought
Which somatic sensory receptor is rapidly adapting and responsible for fine touch? Meissner corpuscle
The best example of referred pain is: pain felt into the left arm during a heart attack
Which sensation is not carried by the posterior column-medial lemniscus (PCML) pathway? temperature
The body parts represented by the largest area on the somatosensory map are the: fingers
Which of the following is not true when comparing the direct and indirect motor pathways? the indirect motor pathways consist of three major tracts
Which of the following is not a function of the cerebellum?
Which stimulus does not stimulate the reticular activating system (RAS)? smoke
Memory is best defined as:
Which of the following are responsible for producing new olfactory receptors? basal cells
Which is not an event that occurs during the process of gustation? the site of taste transduction occurs at the basal cells
Which of the following does not pertain to the lacrimal apparatus? tears are produced by the sebaceous glands
The cis to trans conversion of retinal when photopigments respond to light is called: isomerization
There is a white outer covering of the eye known as the sclera
Considering the arrangement of rods+cones in the retina, is a central loc where only cones are found. Move farther away from this point there are inc amts of rods+fewer cones so,some point we are able to see b+w. This central location of only cones is fovea centralis
Which statement is not true in describing the equilibrium pathways? axons from the vestibular nuclei connect with cranial nerves X and XII which control eye movements
An age-related change where an individual has a ringing sensation in the ears is called: tinnitus
Olfactory receptors use olfactory hairs to transduce chemical signals from odorants.
Which of the following form an inverted v-shaped row at the back of the tongue? vallate papillae
The hair cells responsible for hearing are located on the ________; their hair bundles are embedded in the ________ basilar membrane; tectorial membrane
Which of the following continuously receives sensory information from the utricle and saccule, monitors the information, and subsequently sends impulses to the motor cortex of the cerebrum? cerebellum
The retina develops from neural ectoderm
Created by: vtlove116



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