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Chapter 23 vs

Urinary System

Where are the kidneys located in association to the vertebrae? Lateral to T12-L3 vertebrae
Compare the location of the right and left kidney? Right kidney is lower than the left
Are the kidneys Retroperitoneally located or Interperitoneally located? Retroperitoneally located
The kidneys are surrounded by layers of what? fascia and fat
What cushions the kidney against trauma and helps hold them in place? perirenal and pararenal fat
What are the dimensions of the average kidney? 12 cm tall, 6 cm wide, 3 cm thick
What surrounds the kidney Renal Capsule
Where do blood vessels enter and exit the kidney? HILUM on concave medial surface
Where are the adrenal gland in association with the kidney? adrenal glands sit on top but they are functionally unrelated
What are the internal parts of the kidney? 1. Cortex, 2. Medulla, 3. Lobes, 4. Renal Sinus
What region of the kidney is the cortex and what is its appearance like? cortex in superficial region; light and granular appearance
What does the cortex of the kidney form? RENAL COLUMNS that form inward extensions and separate the renal pyramids
Where is the Medulla region of the kidney and what is its appearance like? deep to the superficial cortex and darker in color
What does the Medulla consist of? Consists of PYRAMIDS (cone shaped masses)
What is the papilla in a kidney? the pyramid's apex in the medulla
How many lobes are in EACH kidney? 5-11 lobes
What do the lobes of kidneys consist of? single medullary pyramid plus cortical tissue that surrounds it
Where are the renal columns in kidneys formed and what do they do? formed in cortex and they separate renal pyramids in medulla
What is the Renal Sinus of the kidney? large filled space in the middle of the kidney
How does the renal sinus open up to the exterior? Renal hilum
What does the Renal Sinus contain? 1. Renal vessels, nerves, fat, 2. Renal Pelvis 3. Calices
What is the Renal Pelvis and where is it located? a expanded superior of the ureter and it resides in the renal sinus
What are the minor calix and major calix of kidney? in renal sinus they are extension of renal pelvis. major calix is superior to renal pelvis while minor calix is inferior to renal pelvis
What is the order of urine flow? 1. Kidneys 2. Ureters 3. Urinary Bladder 4. Urethra
Order of blood flow in arteries in kidneys. Renal Arteries to 5 segmental arteries to interlobar arteries to arcuate arteries to interlobular arteries which supply renal cortex
Order of blood flow in veins in kidneys. (Renal Cortex) Cortical radiate veins to arcuate veins to interlobar veins to renal veins
Where do filtration slits form in the kidneys? Visceral layer of the Glomerular capsule
What does the Visceral Filtration Membrane do? 1. Restric the filtration of large elements and proteins 2. Allows passage of water, ions, glucose, aminos acids, and urea
What restrict the filtration of large lements and proteins? Visceral Filtration Membrane
Describe filtration of blood in Urine Production? -by Glomerulus- filtrate of blood leaves kidney capillaries and enters the nephron
What are the three mechanisms of Urine Production? 1. Filtration by Glomerulus 2. Reabsorption by Tubules 3. Secretion by Tubues
Describe Reabsorption in Urine production. -most nutrients, water, and essential ions reclaimed and returned to blood of capillaries (99% renal filtrate is absorbed) -1% of waste products contribute to formation of urine
Describe Secretion in Urine Production. -this is the active process of removing undesirable molecules into the tubule from the blood of capillaries -Supplements formation of urine
What does the Juxtaglomerular Appartus do? regulates blood pressure
Where is the Juxtaglomerular Apparatus located? at the junction between the terminal end of ascending limb of loop of henle and the afferent arteriole
What do Juxtaglomerular Cells do? act as a mechanoreceptors by secreting RENIN when sensing falling blood pressure
What are two components of the Juxtaglomerular Appartus? 1. Justaglomerular Cells 2. Macula Densa
What do Macula Densa do? act as chemoreceptors to monitor solute concentration in filtrate
What do Mesangial cells do in the Kidneys? Interact with Juxtaglomerular Appartus to regulate blood pressure
What is the main structural and functional structure of the kidney? Uriniferous tubules
What are the components of the Urinferous Tubules 1. Nephron (Renal Corpuscle and Renal Tubules) 2. Collecting Duct
What does the collecting duct do? concentrates urine by removing water
What are the two types of Nehprons and what percentage does each make up? 1. Cortical Nephrons 85% of Nephrons 2. Juxtamedullary Nephrons 15% of Nephrons
How do loops of henle act in Cortical Nephrons? dip only a short distance into the medulla
How do loops of Henle act in Juxtamedullary Nephrons? go deep into the medulla and help produce a concentrated urine
The Renal Corpuscle of Nephron is only present in? cortex
What does the Renal Corpuscle of Nephron consist of? a glomerulus surrounded by a glomerular capsule
What are the two layers of the Glomerular Capsule? Parietal layer and the Visceral layer
Which layer of the Glomerular capsule of the Renal Corpuscle forms filtration slits? Visceral layer
What are the three tubular sections of the Nephron and where are they? 1. Proximal Convoluted Tubule- in cortex 2. Loop of Henle- in medulla 3. Distal Convoluted Tubule- in cortex
What part of the Loop of Henle resembles the Proximal Convoluted Tubule? Descending Limb
What part of the Loop of Henle resembles the Distal Convoluted Tubule? Thick segment
Both of the convoluted tubules (distal and proximal) have lots of what? mitochondria and ions
Collecting Ducts receive what from where? Receive urine from distal convoluted tubules of several nephrons
Where are the collecting ducts? runs through cortex deep into medulla
What happens at the papilla of the pyramid? adjacent collecting ducts join to form papillary ducts
What do papillary ducts that are formed by collecting ducts do? empty into minor calices
?What do Ureters do? carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
What prevents back flow of urine into the kidneys? oblique entry of ureters into bladder
What are the three layers of the ureters and what kinda tissue do they have? 1. Mucosa- transitional epithelium 2. Muscularis- two layers of smooth muscle (inner longitudinal and outer circular) 3. Adventitia- typical connective tissue
What is the urinary bladder? a collapsible muscular sac
What does the urinary bladder do? Stores and expels urine
What are the three layers of the wall of the urinary bladder? 1. Mucosa with distensible TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM 2. Thick muscular layer 3. Fibrous adventitia
What is the trigone? defined by the openings for both ureters and urethra
What are the three parts of the urethra in males? From top to bottom 1. Prostatic Urethra 2. Membranous Urethra 3. Spongy (Penile) Urethra
Where is the Prostatic Urethra? passes through the prostate gland
Where is the Membranous Urethra? Passes through the uriogenital diaphragm
Where is the Spongy Urethra? Passes through the length of the penis.
Created by: vs604



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