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Chapter 22 part 2

Digestive System part 2

What is the widest part of the alimentary canal? the stomach
What happens to food in the stomach? food is churned into semifluid CHYME
What controls the rate of delivery of CHYME into the small intestine? the stomach
In the stomach, what destroys bacteria? the acid environment
What is the main function of the stomach and how does it do it? enzymatic digestion by producing pepsinogen that is converted to pepsin by HCL
What is pepsin? enzyme produced by stomach to digest food
Name the parts and curvatures of the stomach. 1. Cardiac Region 2. Fundus 3. Body 4. Pyloric Region 5. Lesser Curvature 6. Great Curvature
Where is the cardiac region of the stomach? adjacent to the esophagus
What and where is the Fundus region of the stomach? 1. the stomach's dome (top) 2. tucked under the diaphragm
Where is the Body region of the stomach? lies between the fundus and the pyloric region
What region of the stomach controls the entry of chyme into the intestines? the pyloric region
What is the lesser curvature of the stomach? the concave right border
What is the greater curvature of the stomach? the convex right border
What three regions is the pyloric region of the stomach separated into? (from outside in) 1. Pylorus 2. Pyloric canal 3. Pyloric antrum
What are the internal folds of mucosa in empty stomach called? What happens to them when the stomach is full call RUGAE that disappear when stomach is full
What three layers is the muscularis externa divided into? 1. longitudinal layer 2. circular layer 3. oblique layer (innermost layer)
What kind of cells make up the stomach mucosa and what does the stomach mucosa secrete? simple columnar epithelium; it secretes coat of bicarbonate-buffered mucus
What does bicarbonate-buffered mucus do? protects the stomach against HCl
What is the surface of stomach mucosa dotted with and what do these open up to? dotted with millions of GASTRIC PITS, which open to tubular GASTRIC GLANDS
What are the types of secretory cells in the gastric glands and what do they produce? 1. Parietal cells- HCl and intrinsic factor 2. Chief Cells- Pepsinogen 3. Enteroendocrine cells- gastric hormones
What is the longest portion of the alimentary canal? the small intestine
What is the principle site of enzymatic digestion and absorption? small intestines
What are the three subdivisions of the Small Intestines? 1. Duodenum 2. Jejunum 3. Ileum
What percentage of the small intestine is the Duodenum and where does it begin? 5% of small intestine and begins at Pylorus
What perecentage of the small intestine does Jejunum make up? 40%
What percentage of the small intestine is Ileum and where does it end? 60% and it ends at the cecum of large intestine
What part of the small intestine receives the chyme? the duodenum
What is the hepatopancreatic ampulla? where the main pancreatic duct and bile duct enter the wall of the duodenum where they form a bulb
What modifications of the small intestine are used for absorption? 1. Circular folds 2. Villi 3. Microvilli
What are the type of cells that exist in the intestinal wall? 1. Absorptive Cells 2. Goblet Cells 3. Enteroendocrine cells 4. Intestinal crypts
What do the absorptive cells of the intestinal wall do? uptake digested nutrients
What do the goblet cells of the intestinal wall do? secrete mucus that lubricates chyme and protects lining of intestine
What do enteroendocrine cells do? secrete hormones that stimulate pancreas and gallbladder
What are the functions of the large intestine? 1. Re-absorption of electrolytes and water 2. Elimination of undigested food and other stuff
Large intestine performs a small amount of what by what? digestion by bacteria
What is initiated several times a day in the large intestine and what is it for? mass peristalic movements to forces feces toward the rectum
What is found in large intestine and not in small intestines? 1. Teniae coli 2. Haustra 3. Epiploic appendages
What are the parts of the colon? 1. Cecum 2. Vermiform appendix 3. Colon
What is the cecum? a blind pouch at the beginning of the colon
What lies at the junction of ileum and cecum? ileocecal valves
What are the distinct segments of the colon Ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon
The rectum is a continuation of what? the sigmoid colon
What do small intestines have that large intestines don't? villi and plicae circularis
In the large intestines, the epithelium changes here into what? at anal canal from simple columnar epithelial to stratified squamous epithelium
What is the largest gland in the body? the liver
What is digestive function of the liver? bile production
Where does the liver lie? in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen
The liver has what type of surface? diaphragmatic and visceral surface
How many lobes does the liver have and what are there names? 1. Right 2. Left 3. Quadrate 4. Caudate
How do most vessels enter or leave the liver? via the porta hepatis
What are Kupffer cells? liver macrophages that remove debris from the blood
The gallbladder is connected to what organ and how? the liver by the hepatic duct
What does the gallbladder do? concentrates bile that comes from the liver and stores it
What does the gallbladder do when stimulated? expels bile into duodenum via cystic and bile duct
Where does the pancreas run? horizontally across the posterior abdominal wall between the duodenum and the spleen
What type organ is the pancreas? (Interperitoneal or Retro-Peritoneal) Retro-Peritoneal
What Acinar cells? (EXOCRINE gland function) cells in PANCREAS that store enzymes that break down a lot of stuff
Enzymes of the pancreas are activated in what? the duodenum
What is the ENDOCRINE gland function of the pancreas? produces insulin and glucagon in pancreatic islets REGULATE BLOOD SUGAR
What is inflammatory bowel disease and give examples? inflammation of the intestinal wall i.e. crohn's disease and Ulcerative colitis
What is Viral hepatitis? (digestive system disorder) inflammation of liver of viral origin
Created by: vs604



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