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Study Guide

TermDefinition
They eye is made up of which 3 layers Fibrous Tunic, Vascular Tunic, and Nervous Tunic
Fibrous Tunic Consists of: Sclera and Cornea
The "white part" of the eye. A tough covering with the cornea forms the external protective layer of the eye Sclera
The refractive, transparent, anterior wall of the eye. = to 43 diopters in power. This is the fastest healing part of the body. Has 5 Layers Cornea
Name 5 Layers of Cornea Epithelium, Bowman's Membrane, Stroma, Descemet's Membrane, and Endothelium
Vascular Tunic Consists of: Iris, Choroid, and Ciliary Body
The colored, circular membrane suspended behind the cornea & immediately in front of the lens. It regulates the amount of light entering the eye by changing the size of the pupil Iris
Vascular(blood rich) layer of the eye; its function is to nourish the other parts of the eye, primarily the retina Choroid
The thick rim of the choroid to which the crystalline lens is attached Ciliary Body
Nervous Tunic Consists of: Retina
The membrane which forms the inner lining of the back wall of the eye. Constituted of two kinds of cells which respond to the stimulus of light(rods & cones) & send nervous impulses to the brain through the optic nerve Retina
Nervous Tunic or Neural Layer contains photo receptors known as; Rods & Cones
Specialized visual cell in the retina responsible for peripheral & night vision Rods
Light sensitive cells in the retina responsible for color vision, daytime vision, & central portioin of the visual field. Cones
120 million Rods located; outside the Retina
6 million cones near; Center of macula
Highest # of cones found at Fovea
Where light focuses in healthy eye Macula
Oval area in the retina devoid of blood vessels; most responsible for color vision & central vision Macula
A small depression in the retina, at the back of the eye. It is part of the macula adapted for clearest vision Fovea
Point where the optic nerve enters the eye is known as Optic disc
Optic disc does not contain receptor cells. It is known as The "blind spot"
The eye contains 3 fluid filled chambers Anterior Chamber, Posterior Chamber, & Vitreous Chamber
Chamber located between Cornea & Iris Anterior Chamber
Chamber located between Iris & Lens Posterior Chamber
Anterior & Posterior Chamber contain fluid called aqueous humor
Watery fluid produced by the ciliary body. Maintains pressure, IOP & provides nutrients to the lens & cornea. Contiously drained through the eye through "Canal of Schlemm" Aqueous Humor
Chamber between Retina & lens filled w/ thicker gel-like substance. Vitreous chamber
Gel like substance which maintains the shape of the eye Vitreous humor
Light enters through the Cornea
Light passes through the pupil
The amount of light allowed in through the eye by Iris
Iris has 2 muscles Dilator & Sphincter
Muscle that opens iris allowing more light in Dilator
Muscle that closes iris Sphincter
Iris has ability to change pupil size from 2-8 mm
Outer most layer of cornea which rests on Bowman's membrane Epithelium
Layer of cornea which acts as a protective barrier Bowman's membrane
Makes up 90% thickness of cornea Stroma
Layer of cornea that sepeartes the stroma and endothelium Descemet's membrane
Layer of cornea that removes water and helps keep it clear Endothelium
Behind the pupil is the crystalline lens
A transparent, colorless body suspended in the front part of the eyeball between aqueous humor & vitreous humor. Its function is to bring light rays to focus on the retina Crystalline lens
Process of focusing light based on distance is accomodation
The ability of the eye to adjust focus for varying distances Accomodation
The closer an object is to the eye the ____________ power is required of the crystalline lens to focus the image on the retina more
The crystalline lens achieves accommodation with the help of the ciliary body
The ciliary body is attached to the crystalline lens via fibrous strands called zonules
When the ciliary body contracts, the zonules relax allowing the lens to thicken, ____________power, allowing the eye to fucus________ adding up close
When the ciliary body relaxes, the zonules contract, drawing the lens outward, making the lens _____________ allowing the eye to focus _________________ thinner at distance
Eyelid Palpebrae
Point where upper & lower eyelids meet "corner of the eye" medial canthus
Where upper & lower eyelids meet towards ear Lateral Canthus
Strong hairs that run along upper & lower palpebral margins. There to filter debris Eyelashes
Located along the inner margin of the eyelids. Glands secrete a liquid that keeps the eyelids from sticking together Meibomian Glands
Actual location behind the eyelid/palpebra & along the sclera. It is where 2 layers of the conjuctiva meet and join Fornix
Inside the Orbit of the eye. The gland that produces the bulk of tears. It is located above the lateral canthus in a depression in the bone that surrounds the eye Lacrimal Gland
Small openings located at the medial canthus that allow tears to drain off Lacrimal Puncta
The path the tears take from the eye to the lacrimal sac and then to the nasal passage Lacrimal Canals
Located at the medial canthus, produces a liquid that soothes and lubricates the eye Lacrimal Caruncle
Clear lens that covers the iris. First major structure that refracts light as it enters the eye. It has no blood supply & gets all of its oxygen directly from the air Cornea
Opening created by the iris changing size. Pupil
"whites of the eyes" Sclera
Where the cornea blends into the sclera Limbus
Rotates eye laterally or out towards ear. Attaches directly to side of eye and runs straight back Lateral Rectus
Eye looks up. Attaches directly to the top of the eye and runs straight back. Superior Rectus
Rotates eye towards nose. Attaches directly to side of eye and runs straight back. Medial Rectus
Eye looks down. Attaches directly to the bottom of the eye and runs straight back. Inferior Rectus
Eye rolls, looks up & to the side. Attaches along lateral side of the eye & runs under the eye passing over the inferior rectus & attaches medially Inferior Oblique
Eye rolls, looks down & to the side. Attaches under the superior rectus, passes through a bony spur know as the Trochlea, & then follow path of the superior rectus. Raised attachment point allows for rotation. Superior Oblique
Created by: mgm9480