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GENITOURINARY DISEAS

Fundamentals of Disease Processes

QuestionAnswer
A nephron is a: kidney cell.
Each nephron consists of a filter called a: glomerulus.
ACUTE GLOMERULONEPHRITIS (AGN) Acute glomerulonephritis (AGN) is a sudden inflammation of the kidney's glomeruli (filters).
AGN can be the sequela (aftereffect) of a: streptococcal (strep) infection.
Sx and SX of AGN include: 1. Facial and/or pedal edema which means swelling of the face and/or ankles and feet.
Sx and SX of AGN include: 2. Albuminuria which means protein (albumin) in theurine.
Sx and SX of AGN include: 3. Hematuria which means blood in the urine.
Sx and SX of AGN include: 4. The presence of tubular shaped groups of erythrocytes in the urine called red blood cell (RBC) casts.
Acute glomerulonephritis may resolve (subside): without treatment.
CHRONIC GLOMERULONEPHRITIS (CGN) is a recurring inflammation of the kidneys.
Chronic glomerulonephritis can be caused by: HBV, HCV, + HIV which stands for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus.
CGN is commonly idiopathic which means: pertaining to a disease with an unknown cause.
Chronic CGN may persist (continue) for years with: 1. Remissions which means signs and symptoms diminish (lessen) or disappear.
Chronic CGN may persist (continue) for years with: 2. Relapse which means the signs and symptoms return.
Chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN) is usually accompanied by: HTN which stands for hypertension.
A sign of chronic glomerulonephritis ( CGN) is: low urine SG which stands for specific gravity.
CGN can lead to dysfunctional kidneys abbreviated RF which stands for: renal failure.
RENAL FAILURE Renal failure (RF) is characterized (described) by the inability of the kidneys to eliminate (remove) nitrogenous (N waste.
Renal failure (RF) causes a blood condition of excessive nitrogenous (N) waste called: uremia aka azotemia.
Blood tests to detect (find) renal failure (RF) include: 1. BUN which stands for blood, urea, nitrogen.
Blood tests to detect (find) renal failure (RF) include: 2. Cc which stands for creatinine clearance.
Blood tests to detect (find) renal failure (RF) include: 3. Cystatin C aka Cys C.
Blood tests to detect (find) renal failure (RF) include: 4. GFR which stands for glomerular filtration rate.
ACUTE RENAL FAILURE (ARF) Causes of acute renal failure (ARF) include Causes of acute renal failure (ARF) include: 1. AGN which stands for acute glomerulonephritis.
Causes of acute renal failure (ARF) include 2. CGN which stands for chronic glomerulonephritis.
Causes of acute renal failure (ARF) include 3. A life-threatening condition caused by a deficient amount of body fluid called hypovolemic shock.
Causes of acute renal failure (ARF) include 4. Transfusion of an incompatible blood type or Rh factor.
Causes of acute renal failure (ARF) include 5. Kidney trauma which means wound or injury.
Causes of acute renal failure (ARF) include 6. Consumption of toxins which are poisons.
Signs and symptoms of acute renal failure (ARF) include: 1. Oliguria which means scanty (deficient) urine production.
Signs and symptoms of acute renal failure (ARF) include: 2. Anuria which means no urine production.
Signs and symptoms of acute renal failure (ARF) include: 3. A blood condition of excessive nitrogenous (N) waste called uremia aka azotemia.
Signs and symptoms of acute renal failure (ARF) include: 4. The breath smells of NH, which is ammonia.
Signs and symptoms of acute renal failure (ARF) include: 5. Hyperkalemia which means blood condition of excessive potassium.
Signs and symptoms of acute renal failure (ARF) include: 6. Muscle weakness that can lead to cardiac arrest.
Treatment for acute renal failure (ARF) includes: 1. Remedying (correcting) the cause.
Treatment for acute renal failure (ARF) includes: 2. Artificial removal of nitrogenous (N) waste from the blood abbreviated HD which stands for hemodialysis.
Another type of dialysis is abbreviated CAPD which stands for: continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Dialysis means artificial removal.
CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE (CRF)
Causes of chronic renal failure include: 1. CGN which stands for chronic glomerulonephritis.
Causes of chronic renal failure include: 2. Chronic HTN which stands for persistent hypertension.
Causes of chronic renal failure include: 3. DN which stands for diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes mellitus is associated with a hormone called insulin.
Treatment (Tx) for CRF includes: 1. Artificial removal of nitrogenous (N) waste from the blood abbreviated HD which stands for hemodialysis. CRF stands for chronic renal failure.
Treatment (Tx) for CRF includes: 2. CAPD which stands for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.
Treatment (Tx) for CRF includes: 3. Kidney transplantation from a compatible (matched) donor.
Chronic renal failure (CRF) can also be caused by ATN which stands for: acute tubular necrosis.
Causes of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) include nephrotoxic agents such as: 1. Aminoglycoside antibiotics.
Causes of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) include nephrotoxic agents such as: 2. Antihyperlipidemic medications.
Causes of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) include nephrotoxic agents such as: 3. Dyes used in diagnostic procedures.
PYELONEPHRITIS
Pyelonephritis is a suppurative inflammation of a kidney's : renal pelvis. Suppurative means pus creating.
Pyelonephritis is commonly caused by proliferation (rapid reproduction) of a: normal colon bacteria called escherichia coli (E. Coli). Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a suppurative bacteria that causes collections of pus in the renal pelves called abscesses.
Signs and symptoms of pyelonephritis include: 1. Dysuria which means painful (burning) urination.
Signs and symptoms of pyelonephritis include: 2. Pyuria which means pus in the urine.
Signs and symptoms of pyelonephritis include: 3. Bacteriuria wich means bacteria in the urine.
Signs and symptoms of pyelonephritis include: 4. Hematuria which means blood in the urine.
Treatment (Tx) for pyelonephritis includes administration (giving) of anti-infective medications called: antibiotics. The prognosis for pyelonephritis is good. Prognosis means predicted (likely) outcome.
RENAL CARCINOMA
Renal carcinoma is a malignancy of a kidney that occurs more frequently in: 50-60 year old men. Malignancy means the ability to metastasize (spread).
The incidence of renal carcinoma doubles for smokers and those with chronic HTN which stands for: persistent hypertension aka high blood pressure (HBP). Incidence means the number of new cases.
A sign of renal carcinoma is: painless hematuria which means blood in the urine.
The prognosis (Px) for renal carcinoma is poor because: metastasis (spread) to the lungs, liver, bone and brain usually occurs before signs and symptoms appear.
WILMS' TUMOR (WT)
A Wilms' tumor (WT) is a renal (kidney) malignancy usually occurring: in children before the age of five (5).
A sign of Wilms' tumor is: painless hematuria which means blood in the urine.
The prognosis for a Wilms' tumor is good: if metastasis has not occurred.
KIDNEY STONES
Kidney stones are called: nephroliths or renal calculi.
Nephrolithiasis means: abnormal condition of kidney stone(s).
Renal calculi occur more frequently in: 20 to 40 year old men (4 to 1)
Renal calculi are aka: kidney stones or nephroliths.
Signs and symptoms of nephrolithiasis occur when a: calculus (stone) obstructs (occludes) a ureter.
The ureters are tubes (ducts) that transport (carry) urine from the: kidneys to the urinary bladder.
Signs and symptoms of nephrolithiasis include: 1. Sharp severe retroperitoneal (flank) pain radiating to the inguinal (groin) region.
Signs and symptoms of nephrolithiasis include: 2. Hematuria which means blood in the urine.
Causes of nephrolithiasis include: 1. Excess consumption of Ca which stands for calcium (80%).
Causes of nephrolithiasis include: 2. Excess consumption of protein and Na which stands for sodium.
Causes of nephrolithiasis include: 3. Hyperparathyroidism which means condition of excessive PTH which stands for parathyroid hormone.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates (causes): osteocytes to release calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) into the blood.
Osteocytes are: bone cells.
A nephrolith (kidney stone) that fills a renal pelvis completely is called a: staghorn calculus.
Renal pelves are located where the: ureters connect to the kidneys.
Ureters transport (carry) urine from the kidneys to: the urinary bladder.
Diagnosis (Dx) of nephrolithiasis (renal calculi) is confirmed (proven) with: 1. An X-ray abbreviated KUB which stands for kidneys and ureters and urinary bladder.
Diagnosis (Dx) of nephrolithiasis (renal calculi) is confirmed (proven) with: 2. Renal US which stands for ultrasound. Nephrolithiasis means abnormal condition of kidney stone(s).
Diagnosis (Dx) of nephrolithiasis (renal calculi) is confirmed (proven) with: 3. Renal CT which stands for computerized tomography. Computerized tomography refers toX-ray picture slices.
Diagnosis (Dx) of nephrolithiasis (renal calculi) is confirmed (proven) with: 4. An X-ray of the renal pelves after intravenous injection of a radiopaque (contrast) dye abbreviated IVP which stands for intravenous pyelogram.
Treatment for a renal calculus that impedes the flow of urine includes crushing the stone with intense sound waves from outside the body abbreviated ESWL which stands for: extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.
HYDRONEPHROSIS
Hydronephrosis means: abnormal condition of excessive fluid in a kidney.
Hydronephrosis occurs when: urine is unable to exit (leave) a kidney.
Causes of Hydronephrosis include an: 1. Obstruction (occlusion) resulting from a kidney stone called a nephrolith (renal calculus).
Causes of Hydronephrosis include an: 2. Obstruction (occlusion) resulting from a new growth called a neoplasm or tumor.
Causes of Hydronephrosis include an: 3. Nonmalignant excessive development of the prostate abbreviated BPH which stands for benign prostatic hypertrophy.
Benign (non-malignant) neoplasms: do not have the ability to metastasize (spread).
Treatment for Hydronephrosis involves removal of the: obstruction aka occlusion.
Hydronephrosis means: abnormal condition of excessive fluid in a kidney.
CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE (CKD)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) refers to: a gradual loss of renal function.
Risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) include: 1. DM which stands for diabetes mellitus.
Risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) include: 2. Chronic HTN which means persistent hypertension.
CYSTITIS
Cystitis means: inflammation of the urinary bladder aka a "bladder infection".
Cystitis is more common in females because: their urethra is shorter compared to males.
Cystitis is commonly caused by: normal colon flora abbreviated E. coli which stands for Escherichia coli.
Signs and symptoms of cystitis include: 1. The urge (desire or need) to void frequently called urinary frequency.
Void means: urinate (micturate)
Signs and symptoms of cystitis include: 2. An acute (sudden) desire to void called urinary urgency.
Signs and symptoms of cystitis include: 3. Dysuria which means painful (burning) urination.
Signs and symptoms of cystitis include: 4. Pungent urine which means strong smelling (ammonia) urine.
Signs and symptoms of cystitis include: 5. Bacteriuria which means bacteria in the urine.
Signs and symptoms of cystitis include: 6. Pyuria which means pus in the urine.
Treatment for cystitis includes: 1. Increasing water intake called forcing fluids.
Treatment for cystitis includes: 2. Administration of anti-infective medications called antibiotics.
Methods to decrease the risk of cystitis include: 1. Wiping from front to back after evacuating the rectum called defecation aka BMI which stands for bowel movement.
Methods to decrease the risk of cystitis include: 2. Takin a shower for hygiene before sitting in a bath. Hygiene means cleanliness.
Methods to decrease the risk of cystitis include: 3. Not douching unless directed by a physician.
Douching means: vaginal irrigation (flushing).
Douching (vaginal irrigation) upsets vaginal homeostasis (balance) by: flushing out beneficial microbes called flora.
Methods to decrease the risk of cystitis include: 4. Increasing ventilation (breathing) in the genitourinary region by not wearing tight fitting pants.
Methods to decrease the risk of cystitis include: 5. Wearing underwear made of breathable fabric such as cotton.
Methods to decrease the risk of cystitis include: 6. Urinating after coitus aka copulation or sexual intercourse.
Methods to decrease the risk of cystitis include: 7. Increasing water intake called forcing fluids.
Methods to decrease the risk of cystitis include: 8. Taking a nighttime supplement of ascorbic acid aka Vitamin C.
URETHRITIS
The urethra is the vessel (tube or duct or canal) that transports (carries) urine from the: urinary bladder to the outside world.
Urethritis means: Inflammation of the urethra.
Urethritis is commonly caused by: exposure to normal colon flora such as E. coli.
Urethritis in females commonly accompanies: an inflammation of the urinary bladder called cystitis aka a "bladder infection".
Urethritis can occur when exposed to: 1. The most common STD called chlamydia.
STD stands for: sexually transmitted disease.
Urethritis can occur when exposed to: 2. The 2nd most common STI abbreviated GC which stands for gonococci aka gonorrhea.
STI stands for: sexually transmitted infection.
Signs and symptoms of urethritis include: 1. Dysuria which means painful (burning) urination.
Signs and symptoms of urethritis include: 2. Dyspareunia which means painful coitus (copulation of sexual intercourse).
Signs and symptoms of urethritis include: 3. Mucopurulent urethral discharge which means release of mucus and pus from the urethral meatus (opening)
Signs and symptoms of urethritis include: 4. Urethral pruritis which means itching.
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE DISEASES
Vaginitis means: inflammation of the vagina.
Vaginitis is commonly caused by a: fungus called candida albicans aka monilia.
Vaginitis caused by proliferation of candida albicans (monilial) is called: candidiasis or moniliasis or vaginal yeast (fungal) infection.
Proliferation (rapid reproduction) of candida albicans (monilia) can occur (happen) with the use of: a. Anti-infective medications called antibiotics.
Proliferation (rapid reproduction) of candida albicans (monilia) can occur (happen) with the use of: b. Vaginal irrigation (flushing) called douching.
Antibiotics and/or douches (irrigation) can: decrease vaginal normal flora allowing opportunistic fungi (yeast) such as candida albicans (monilia) to proliferate.
Normal flora are: beneficial microorganisms (microbes).
Sx and SX of vaginitis caused by candida albicans (monilia) include: 1. Vaginal pruritis which means itching.
Sx and SX of vaginitis caused by candida albicans (monilia) include: 3. Dysuria which means painful (burning) urination.
Sx and SX of vaginitis caused by candida albicans (monilia) include: 4. Dyspareunia which means painful coitus (copulation or sexual intercourse).
Sx and SX of vaginitis caused by candida albicans (monilia) include: 5. Pungent viscous leukorrhea which means strong smelling thick white or yellow vaginal flow (discharge).
Treatment for vaginitis caused by candida albicans includes: anti-infective medications called antifungals.
Candida albicans is a: yeast (fungus) aka monilia.
Vaginitis (inflammation of the vagina) caused by thinning of the vaginal septa (walls) is called: atrophic vaginitis.
Atrophic vaginitis results from a decrease in estrogen production associated with: menopause.
A common complaint with atrophic vaginitis is: dyspareunia which means painful coitus or painful copulation or painful sexual intercourse.
Treatment for atrophic vaginitis includes: 1. Administration of ERT aka HRT which stand for estrogen replacement therapy.
Treatment for atrophic vaginitis includes: 2. Water soluble lubricants such as K-Y jelly.
Treatment for atrophic vaginitis includes: 3. Antibiotic creams for opportunistic bacterial vaginal infections.
Treatment for atrophic vaginitis includes: 4. Steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (SAID) creams to reduce inflammation.
CERVICAL CANCER
Cervical cancer refers to a malignancy of the inferior portion or neck of the uterus abbreviated CX which stands for: cervix. Inferior means lower.
A cervical malignancy has a good prognosis (Px) if detected (found) before: metastasis (spread).
The most common test to detect (find) a cervical malignancy is a cervical biopsy (Bx) called a: PAP test or PAP smear.
Abnormal cervical cells detected (found) before metastasis are abbreviated CIS which stands for: carcinoma in situ.
Tx for carcinoma in situ (CIS) includes: 1. Surgical removal (excision) of the affected cervical section (part) called a conization.
Carcinoma in situ (CIS) means: detection of abnormal cervical cells before metastasis (spread).
Treatment for CIS includes: 2. Surgical removal (excision) of the affected cervical section (part) abbreviated LEEP which stands for loop electrosurgical excision procedure.
Treatment for carcinoma in situ (CIS) includes: 3. Freezing to destroy the affected cervical section called cryosurgery.
Treatment for carcinoma in situ (CIS) includes: 4. Burning to destroy the affected cervical section (part) called cauterization.
Treatment for carcinoma in situ (CIS) includes: 5. Hysterectomy which means surgical removal (excision) of the uterus (womb).
FIBROID TUMORS OF THE UTERUS
Fibroid tumors of the uterus are aka: uterine fibroids or leiomyomas. The uterus is aka the womb.
Leiomyomas are idiopathic benign tumors of the myometrium which is the: muscle layer of the uterus.
Sx and SX of leiomyomas include: 1. A hurting discomfort between the abdomen and thighs called pelvic pain.
Sx and SX of leiomyomas include: 2. Menorrhagia which means excessive or prolonged menstruation (menses).
Menstruation (menses) is the: cyclic 28 day sloughing (shedding) of the endometrium (uterine inner lining).
Sx and SX of leiomyomas include: 3. Metrorrhagia which means bleeding between menses.
Sx and SX of leiomyomas include: 4. Dyspareunia which means painful coitus (copulation or sexual intercourse.
Sx and SX of leiomyomas include: 5. The inability to reproduce called infertility or sterility.
Diagnosis of uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) is confirmed with: 1. Sonohysterography which means process of recording the uterus using sound.
Sx and SX of leiomyomas include: 2. Pelvic laparoscopy which means process of using a lighted instrument to view the pelvic cavity inserted through the abdomen.
Treatment for leiomyomas include: 1. Myomectomy which means surgical removal (excision) of the uterine fibroids.
Treatment for leiomyomas include: 2. Myolysis which means destruction of the uterine fibroids using UFE which stands for uterine fibroid embolization.
Treatment for leiomyomas include: 3. Hysterectomy which means surgical removal (excision) of the uterus (womb).
OVARIAN NEOPLASMS
The most common ovarian neoplasm is an: ovarian cyst. Neoplasm means new growth.
An ovarian cyst is usually a: benign fluid filled sac or vesicle (blister). Benign means nonmalignant (non-spreading).
Ovarian cysts usually abate (subside) with time but large ovarian cysts that interfere with blood flow can be: removed surgically. Abate (subside) means diminish (lessen) or disappear.
POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME (PCOS)
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is idiopathic (unknown cause) disorder characterized (described) by: formation of many ovarian cysts.
PCOS commonly causes an overproduction of the male sex hormone called: testosterone aka androgen.
Sx and SX of polycystic ovary syndrome include: 1. Weight gain and chronic hypertension.
Sx and SX of polycystic ovary syndrome include: 2. Hair growth on the face, chest, back, thumbs and toes called hirsutism.
Sx and SX of polycystic ovary syndrome include: 3. Scalp alopecia which means hair loss.
Sx and SX of polycystic ovary syndrome include: 4. AV which stands for acne vulgaris.
Sx and SX of polycystic ovary syndrome include: 5. Irregular menstrual cycle.
Sx and SX of polycystic ovary syndrome include: 6. OSA which means obstructive sleep apnea.
Sx and SX of polycystic ovary syndrome include: 7. MDD which stands for major depressive disorder aka clinical depression.
PCOS is the most common cause of an inability to reproduce called: infertility or sterility.
PCOS can increase the risk of: 1. CVD which stands for cardiovascular disease.
PCOS can increase the risk of: 2. DM which stands for diabetes mellitus.
OVARIAN CANCER
Ovarian malignancies are the 5th leading cause of cancer (CA) mortality in women because of metastasis (spread) commonly occurring before: signs and symptoms appear. Mortality means death.
Diagnosis of an ovarian malignancy can be confirmed with: 1. TVUS which stands for transvaginal ultrasound.
Diagnosis of an ovarian malignancy can be confirmed with: 2. A blood test to detect a protein called CA-125.
Diagnosis of an ovarian malignancy can be confirmed with: 3. An ovarian tissue specimen (sample) obtained for analysis (examination) called a biopsy (Bx).
Treatment for an ovarian malignancy includes: 1. antineoplastic medications aka chemotherapy.
BREAST CANCER
The most common breast malignancy is a glandular neoplasm (new growth) called an: adenocarcinoma.
Breast malignancies commonly metastasize (spread) through: the blood + lymphatic system.
Breast malignancy factors include: 1. Being over age 55.
Breast malignancy factors include: 2. A sedentary lifestyle which means little or no regular exercise.
Breast malignancy factors include: 3. Heredity aka familial.
Breast malignancy factors include: 4. Consumption of ETOH which stands for ethanol (alcohol).
Breast malignancy factors include: 5. Nulligravida which means no pregnancies.Breast malignancy factors include:
Breast malignancy factors include: 6. BCPs (OCPs) which stand for birth control pills aka oral contraceptive pills.
Breast malignancy factors include: 7. ERT (HRT) which stands for estrogen replacement therapy aka hormone replacement therapy.
Signs of a breast malignancy include: 1. A painless hard fixated mass (collection), (lump) that has irregular edges.
Signs of a breast malignancy include: 2. Axillary lymphadenopathy which means edematous (swollen) lymph nodes of an axilla (armpit).
Signs of a breast malignancy include: 3. Discharge (flow) from a papilla aka a nipple.
Signs of a breast malignancy include: 4. Skin puckering and/or dimpling.
Signs of a breast malignancy include: 5. Papillary retraction which means flattened nipple.
Treatment for a breast malignancy includes: 1. Beam of intense energy called radiation therapy.
Treatment for a breast malignancy includes: 2. Chemotherapy aka antineoplastic medications.
Treatment for a breast malignancy includes: 3. Lumpectomy which means surgical removal (excision) of a breast.
Treatment for a breast malignancy includes: 4. Mastectomy which means surgical removal (excision) of a breast.
The younger a person is with a breast malignancy, the more: aggressive the cancer.
BENIGN BREAST NEOPLASMS
The most common benign breast neoplasm (new growth) is called a: fibroadenoma.
A fibroadenoma is usually: solid, round, rubbery, painless and moves freely.
A 2nd type of benign (nonmalignant) breast neoplasm is abbreviated FCC which stands for: fibrocystic changes aka "lumpy breasts".
Fibrocystic changes (FCC) usually occur in both breasts and increase in size and tenderness just prior to: endometrial sloughing (shedding) called menses aka menstruation. The endometrium is the inner lining of the uterus (womb).
A 3rd type of benign (nonmalignant) breast neoplasm (new growth) is a fluid filled sac called: a cyst.
Breast cysts are round, moveable, and may increase in size and become tender just before endometrial (uterine lining) sloughing (shedding) called: menses (menstruation).
TOXIC SHOCK SYNDROME (TSS)
Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is commonly caused by proliferation of: staphylococci (staph) or streptococci (strep).
Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is associated with the use of: tampons.
The risk of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) can be greatly reduced if tampons are: changed frequently.
Super-absorbent tampons: should be avoided.
PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME (PMS)
Premenstrual syndrome refers to a group of signs and symptoms that begin 1-2 weeks before and usually ceases (stops) with the onset (beginning) of: endometrial sloughing (shedding) aka menstruation (menses).
Signs and symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) include: 1. Dysmenorrhea which means painful menstrual flow.
Signs and symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) include: 2. Fluid retention causing edema (swelling) and weight gain.
Signs and symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) include: 3. Mastalgia which means breast pain.
Signs and symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) include: 4. Cephalgia which means headache.
Signs and symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) include: 5. AV which stands for acne vulgaris.
Signs and symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) include: 6. Inability to obtain adequate sleep called insomnia.
Signs and symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) include: 7. Fatigue which means loss of energy.
Signs and symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) include: 8. Sudden emotional changes called mood swings.
Signs and symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) include: 9. Anxiety, anxiousness, and tension at a more intense level than normal called neurosis (neurotic)
Signs and symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) include: 10. Quick annoyance called irritability.
Signs and symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) include: 11. MDD which stands for major depressive disorder aka clinical depression.
Signs and symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) include: 12. Unfriendly behavior called hostility.
Signs and symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) include: 13. Uncontrollable weeping called crying spells.
Signs and symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) include: 14. Food cravings especially those that are sweet and/or salty.
Treatment for premenstrual syndrome include: 1. Increasing intake of water called forcing fluid.
Treatment for premenstrual syndrome include: 2. Regular exercise to decrease bloating.
Treatment for premenstrual syndrome include: 3. Avoiding consumption of salt, sugar, caffeine and alcholol.
A severe form of premenstrual syndrome is abbreviated PMDD which stands for: premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
The symptoms of PMDD can be severe enough to interfere with: work and/or social activities and/or relationships.
Treatment for PMDD includes: 1. Sedatives aka antianxiety medications or minor tranquilizers.
Treatment for PMDD includes: 2. Antidepressant medications to treat MDD which stands for major depressive disorder.
ENDOMETRIOSIS
Endometriosis means: abnormal condition of ectopic (displaced) endometrium (uterine inner lining)
Signs and symptoms of endometriosis includes: 1. A hurting discomfort between the abdomen and thighs called pelvic pain.
Signs and symptoms of endometriosis includes: 2. Menorrhagia which means excessive or prolonged menstruation.
Signs and symptoms of endometriosis includes: 3.Metrorrhagia which means bleeding between menses.
Signs and symptoms of endometriosis includes: 4. Dyspareunia which means painful copulation (coitus or sexual intercourse).
Signs and symptoms of endometriosis includes: 5. The inability to reproduce called infertility or sterility.
Treatment for endometriosis includes: 1. Laparoscopic excision of the ectopic endometrium which means surgical removal of the displaced uterine lining with a lighted instrument inserted into the abdomen.
Treatment for endometriosis includes: 2. Hormonal contraceptives to cause amenorrhea which means no menstrual flow (discharge).
ECTOPIC PREGNANCY (EP)
An ectopic pregnancy (EP) occurs when a: fertilized ovum implants (attaches) in tissue outside the uterus (womb).
The most common site for an ectopic pregnancy (EP) is a: uterine tube aka a fallopian tube or oviduct. (UFO).
An ectopic (displaced) pregnancy (EP) in a uterine tube is called: salpingocyesis or "tubal pregnancy.
Causes of ectopic pregnancy (EP) include: 1. An abnormal condition of displaced uterine inner lining called endometriosis.
Causes of ectopic pregnancy (EP) include: 2. Bilateral salpingitis which means inflammation of both fallopian tubes.
Bilateral salpingitis is commonly associated with STDs that cause: oviduct adhesions which means the fallopian tubes (uterine tubes) stick together.
Signs and symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy usually occur: at the end of the 2nd month and include vaginal bleeding and severe unilateral pelvic pain. Unilateral means one side.
Treatment for an ectopic pregnancy (EP) includes: 1. TA which stands for therapeutic (beneficial) abortion.
SPONTANEOUS ABORTION
A spontaneous abortion is aka a: miscarriage.
A spontaneous abortion (miscarriage) usually occurs (happens) between weeks: 7 and 12.
A spontaneous abortion (miscarriage) during the 1st trimester is often caused by a: fetal genetic anomaly (abnormality).
The first trimester refers to the : first three months.
Causes of spontaneous abortion include: 1. Maternal infection during pregnancy (gestation).
Causes of spontaneous abortion include: 2. Medications (drugs), alcohol (ETOH), tobacco, and/or caffeine during pregnancy aka gestation.
Causes of spontaneous abortion include: 3. Poor nutrition during pregnancy (gestation).
Causes of spontaneous abortion include: 4. Exposure to ionizing radiation such as X-rays.
Surgery to scrape the endometrium if placental tissue remains after parturition or spontaneous abortion is abbreviated: D+C which stands for dilatation and curetage.
TOXEMIA
Toxemia is aka: preeclampsia.
Preeclampsia (toxemia) can occur: after 20 weeks of gestation aka pregnancy.
Signs of preeclampsia (toxemia) include: 1. PIH which stands for pregnancy induced hypertension.
Signs of preeclampsia (toxemia) include: 2. Albuminuria which means albumin (protein) in the urine.
Signs of preeclampsia (toxemia) include: 3. Unusual weight gain and edema (swelling) in the face and or arms and or legs.
Preeclampsia (toxemia) with seizures is called: eclampsia
Preeclampsia (toxemia) and eclampsia risk can be reduced with: 1. Routine prenatal (before birth) care.
Preeclampsia (toxemia) and eclampsia risk can be reduced with: 2. Proper nutrition.
MALE REPRODUCTIVE DISEASES
Prostatitis means: inflammation of the prostate.
Prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate) is commonly caused by bacteria such as: 1. Normal colon flora called Escherichia coli (E. coli).
Prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate) is commonly caused by bacteria such as: 2. GC which stands for gonococci aka gonorrhea.
Signs and symptoms of prostatitis include: 1. The urge (desire or need) to void (micturate) frequently called urinary frequency.
Signs and symptoms of prostatitis include: 2. An acute (sudden) urge to void called urinary urgency.
Signs and symptoms of prostatitis include: 3. Dysuria which means painful urinating.
Signs and symptoms of prostatitis include: 4. Pyuria which means pus in the urine.
Signs and symptoms of prostatitis include: 5. Hematuria which means blood in the urine.
Signs and symptoms of prostatitis include: 6. Male dyspareunia which refers to painful ejaculation.
Prostatitis usually responds well to: anti-infective medications called antibiotics.
ENLARGED PROSTATE
A nonmalignant excessive growth of the prostate is abbreviated BPH which stands for: benign prostatic hypertrophy aka benign prostatic hyperplasia.
BPH is more common after the age of: 50.
An enlarged prostate can frequently be palpated by: DRE which stands for digital rectal examination.
Use of sound waves through the rectal wall to obtain an image of the prostate is abbreviated: TRUS which stands for transrectal ultrasound.
Benign prostatic hypertrophy can compress (squeeze) the urethra causing a delay in initiating (starting) micturition called: urinary hesitancy. Micturition means urination or voiding.
BPH can compress (squeeze) the urethra causing the inability to micturate (void) called: urinary retention.
Urinary retention can cause the urinary bladder to fill completely leading to an abnormal condition of excessive fluid in the kidneys called: Hydronephrosis.
Urinary retention means the: inability to urinate (micturate or void).
Treatment (Tx) for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) includes: insertion of a microwave antenna through the urethra to the prostate for heat treatment abbreviated TUMT which stands for transurethral microwave thermotherapy.
Treatment for benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) includes: insertion of a cystoscope through the urethra and the insertion of tiny needles in the prostate to deliver radio waves that remove excess prostatic tissue abbreviated TUNA which stands for transurethral needle ablation.
Treatment for BPH includes: insertion of a laser resectoscope through the urethra to remove excess prostatic tissue called prostatic laser enucleation.
PROSTATIC CANCER
Prostatic carcinoma is a: malignant neoplasm which means dangerous new growth.
Any malignant neoplasm has the ability to: spread called metastasis.
Prostatic carcinoma may be small and initially asymptomatic which means: no symptoms.
Signs and symptoms of prostatic carcinoma include: 1. Dysuria which means difficult urination.
Signs and symptoms of prostatic carcinoma include: 2. Hematuria which means blood in the urine.
Signs and symptoms of prostatic carcinoma include: 3. Nocturia which means chronic (persistent) night urination.
Signs and symptoms of prostatic carcinoma include: 4. Weight loss from anorexia which means no appetite.
Signs and symptoms of prostatic carcinoma include: 5. The inability to control urination called urinary incontinence aka enuresis.
A good prognosis (predicted outcome) for prostatic carcinoma depends on: early detection.
A blood test to detect a predisposition (tendency) for prostatic carcinoma is abbreviated PSA which stands for: prostatic specific antigen.
A prostatic specific antigen (PSA) should be performed annually (yearly) for males over the age of: 50 (45 for African-Americans).
Treatment for prostatic carcinoma includes: 1. Beams of intense energy called radiation therapy.
Treatment for prostatic carcinoma includes: 2. Antineoplastic medications aka chemotherapy.
Treatment for prostatic carcinoma includes: 3. Bilateral orchiectomy which means surgical removal (excision of the testes (testicles).
Treatment for prostatic carcinoma includes: 4. Prostatectomy which means surgical removal (excision) of the prostate.
CRYPTOORCHIDISM
Cryptorchidism means: undescended (hidden) testicle (testis).
Untreated cryptorchidism can cause: sterility aka infertility.
Treatment for cryptorchidism includes: 1. Orchiopexy which means surgical fixation of a testis (testicle).
Treatment for cryptorchidism inc 2. Orchiectomy which means surgical removal (excision) of a testis (testicle).
IMPOTENCE
Impotence is the inability to achieve or maintain an erection abbreviated ED which stands for: erectile dysfunction.
Impotence aka erectile dysfunction (ED) can be caused by: 1. Poorly controlled stress.
Impotence aka erectile dysfunction (ED) can be caused by: 2. Trauma (injury) to the nerves controlling blood flow to the penis.
Impotence aka erectile dysfunction (ED) can be caused by: 3. Complications associated with prostatectomy which means surgical removal of the prostate.
Impotence aka erectile dysfunction (ED) can be caused by: 4. DM which stands for diabetes mellitus.
Impotence aka erectile dysfunction (ED) can be caused by: 6. Abuse of drugs and/or alcohol (ETOH).
Impotence aka erectile dysfunction (ED) can be caused by: 7. Side effects of medication such as antihypertensives or antidepressants or sedatives (antianxiety medications) or antihistamines or antipsychotics (major tranquilizers).
Treatment for impotence includes: 1. Medications for erectile dysfunction (ED).
Treatment for impotence includes: 2. Surgical placement of a penile prosthetic (artificial part) aka a implant.
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES (STDs)
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are also known as STIs which stands for: sexually transmitted infections.
CHLAMYDIA
Chlamydia is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease (STD) and the most common cause of inflammation of the female reproductive organ abbreviated PID which stands for: pelvic inflammatory disease.
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) can also be caused by the 2nd most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) called: gonorrhea which is caused by gonococci (GC).
Signs and symptoms of chlamydia in females include: 1. A hurting discomfort between the abdomen and thighs called pelvic pain.
Signs and symptoms of chlamydia in females include: 2. Dysuria which means painful (burning) urination (micturition).
Signs and symptoms of chlamydia in females include: 3. Pungent viscous leukorrhea which means strong smelling, thick white or yellow vaginal flow (discharge).
Signs and symptoms of chlamydia in females include: 4. Dyspareunia which means painful coitus.
Signs and symptoms of chlamydia in females include: 5. Dysmenorrhea which means painful menstruation.
Untreated chlamydia in females can cause bilateral salpingitis which means: inflammation of both fallopian tubes or oviducts.
Bilateral salpingitis can cause the: inability to reproduce called infertility or sterility.
Signs and symptoms of chlamydia in males include: 1. Orchialgia which means pain in the testicles (testes).
Signs and symptoms of chlamydia in males include: 2. Balanorrhea which means flow (discharge) from the glans penis urethral os).
Signs and symptoms of chlamydia in males include: 3. Dysuria which means painful (burning) urination.
Signs and symptoms of chlamydia in males include: 4. Testicular edema which means swelling of the testicles.
Chlamydia can be cured with the administration of: anti-infective medications called antibiotics.
GONORRHEA
Gonorrhea can be asymptomatic which means: no symptoms.
Untreated gonorrhea can cause: sterility (infertility) in males and females.
Signs and symptoms of gonorrhea in females may include: 1. A hurting discomfort between the abdomen and thighs called pelvic pain.
Signs and symptoms of gonorrhea in females may include: 2. Dysuria which means painful (burning) urination (micturition or voiding).
Signs and symptoms of gonorrhea in females may include: 3. A greenish -yellow discharge (release) from the vagina.
Signs and symptoms of gonorrhea in females may include: 4. Pharyngitis which means inflammation of the pharynx (throat).
Gonorrhea transmitted (spread) to a fetus during parturition can cause: blindness and possibly death. Parturition means childbirth.
Signs and symptoms of gonorrhea in males may include: 1. Orchialgia which means testicular pain.
Signs and symptoms of gonorrhea in males may include: 2. Dysuria which means painful (burning) urination.
Signs and symptoms of gonorrhea in males may include: 3. Balanorrhea which means flow (discharge) from the glans penis (urethral os).
Signs and symptoms of gonorrhea in males may include: 4. Pharyngitis which means inflammation of the pharynx (throat).
Gonorrhea can be cured with the administration of: anti-infective medications called antibiotics.
SYPHILIS
Syphilis is a bacterial sexually transmitted disease (STD) characterized by a primary stage where one or more highly contagious painless ulcers can appear on the penis, vaginal labia, anus, oral labia and tongue called: chancres.
Primary stage syphilis can be cured with the administration of: anti-infective medications called antibiotics.
Untreated syphilis will progress to the secondary stage characterized (described) by a highly communicable (contagious) nonpruritic (non-itchy) rash on the: palms and soles.
Secondary stage syphilis can be cured with the administration of: anti-infective medications called antibiotics.
Tertiary stage syphilis occurs (happens) years after the primary stage and: cannot be cured.
Complications associated with tertiary (third) stage syphilis include: 1. Psychopathy which means disease condition of the mind.
Complications associated with tertiary (third) stage syphilis include: 2. Heart disease.
Complications associated with tertiary (third) stage syphilis include: 3. Blindness.
Complications associated with tertiary (third) stage syphilis include: 4. Death.
Blood tests to detect (find) syphilis include: 1. VDRL - venereal disease lab.
Blood tests to detect (find) syphilis include: 2. RPR - rapid plasma regain)
Blood tests to detect (find) syphilis include: 3. EIA - enzyme immunoassay.
GENITAL HERPES
Genital herpes is a viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by HSVII which stands for: herpes simplex virus 2.
Antibiotics have no effect on: viruses.
Signs and symptoms of the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV II) include: 1. Multiple painful (burning) pruritic (itchy) vesicles (blisters) on the genitalia and/or buttocks and/or thighs.
The genital herpes (HSVII) lesions appear when the immune system is: compromised which means weakened.
General herpes (HSVII) is more easily transmitted (spread) when the vesicular blister lesions are: visible.
There is no cure for genital herpes (HSVII) but outbreaks (appearances) of the vesicular (blister) lesions can be lessened with: antiviral medications such as Valtrex (valacyclovir).
HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS (HPV)
Human papillomavirus is a viral sexually transmitted disease (STD): consisting of (containing) 40 HPV types.
Antibiotics have no effect on: viruses.
Most of the 40 HPV types can be defeated by a: healthy immune system.
Two HVP types cause: 90% of the lesions (abnormal growths) called genital warts.
HPV stands for: human papillomavirus.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) lesions (genital warts) commonly appear on the penis and scrotum in males and vulva (external genitalia) in females.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) lesions (genital warts) cause: pain and pruritis which means itching.
Treatment for human papillomavirus (HPV) lesions includes: 1. Antiviral medications such as Aldara (imiquimod)
Human papillomavirus (HPV) lesions are called: genital warts.
Treatment for HPV lesions (genital warts) includes: 2. Electrocautery which means burning to destroy the lesions (genital warts).
Treatment for HPV lesions (genital warts) includes: 3. Cryosurgery which means freezing to destroy the lesions (genital warts).
Two (2) other human papillomavirus (HPV) types cause: 75% of all cervical malignancies.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is also associated with CVD which stands for: cardiovascular disease.
The risk of a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection increases the earlier a person begins: intimate physical activity with others.
The risk of a human papillomavirus infection: increases with the number of different sexual partners.
There is no cure for these 4 types of HPV but: a vaccine (immunization) is available called Gardasil (3 doses over 6 months)
A vaccine (immunization) is an attenuated (crippled) antigen or: inactivated (dead) antigen.
Created by: bterrelonge