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Anatomy

The Anatomical Position

QuestionAnswer
Cephalic Head
Cervical Neck
Frontal Forehead
Orbital Eye
Otic Ear
Buccal Cheek
Nasal Nose
Oral Mouth
Mental Chin
Axillary Armpit
Brachial Arm
Antecubital Front of elbow
Antebrachial Forearm
Carpal Wrist
Palmar Palm
Thoracic Chest
Abdominal Abdomen
Pelvic Pelvis
Mammary Breast
Umbilical Navel
Coxal Hip
Inguinal Groin
Digital Fingers
Manual Hand
Pubic Pubis
Femoral Thigh
Patellar Anterior surface of knee
Crural Leg
Tarsal Ankle
Pedal Foot
Digital Toes
acromial Sholder
Scapular Sholder blade
Vertebral Spinal Column
Dorsal Back
Lumbar Loin
Sacral Between hips
Gluteal Buttock
Popliteal Hollow between knee
Sural Calf
Plantar Sole
Calcaneal Heel
Superior or cranial toward the head end of the body
Inferior or caudal away from the head
Anterior or ventral front (example, the kneecap is located on the anterior side of the leg).
Posterior or dorsal back (example, the shoulder blades are located on the posterior side of the body).
Medial toward the midline of the body (example, the middle toe is located at the medial side of the foot).
Lateral away from the midline of the body (example, the little toe is located at the lateral side of the foot).
Proximal toward or nearest the trunk or the point of origin of a part (example, the proximal end of the femur joins with the pelvic bone).
Distal away from or farthest from the trunk or the point or origin of a part (example, the hand is located at the distal end of the forearm).
Coronal Plane (Frontal Plane) A vertical plane running from side to side
Sagittal Plane (Lateral Plane) A vertical plane running from front to back
Axial Plane (Transverse Plane) A horizontal plane
Median plane Sagittal plane through the midline of the body
Flexion The movement in which two body parts with common articulation bend toward each other
Extension The movement in which two body parts with common articulation extend away from each other
Abduction The lateral movements of the body part away from the vertical axis of the torso
Adduction The lateral movement that pulls a body part toward the vertical axis of the torso
Circumduction The movement in which the distal end of a limb describes a circle or arc while the proximal end remains stationary
Hyperextension The extension of a joint beyond its normal range of motion
Lateral flexion The lateral movements of the torso and head in the frontal plane. Lateral neck flexion Lateral trunk flexion
Lateral rotation The rotational movement of a limb away the midline
Medial rotation The rotational movement of a limb towards the midline
Depression The movement in an inferior direction
Elevation The movement in a superior direction
Pronation Keeping the elbow and shoulder still, flip your hand into its front, palm down, in the prone position
Supination With your hand resting on a table in front of you, and keeping your shoulder and elbow still, turn your hand into its back, palm up, in the supine postion
Dorsiflexion The flexion at the ankle/wrist, so that the foot/hand points more superiorly
Plantarflexion The extension at the ankle/wrist, so that the foot/hand points inferiorly
Inversion The lateral rotation of the foot, such that the sole points medially
Eversion The medial rotation of the foot, such that the sole points laterally
Opposition The movement that moves the thumb and the little finger together
Reposition The movement that moves the thumb and the little finger away from each other
Retraction The backwards moving in the transverse plane
Protraction The movement that goes forwards along the transverse plane
Abduction of thumb to move the thumb anteriorly
Adduction of thumb to bring the thumb back, to the side of palm
Extension of thumb laterally from the hand and midline of body
Flexion of thumb into palm of hand
Opposition The movement that moves the thumb and the little finger together
Reposition The movement that moves the thumb and the little finger away from each other
Created by: xchorok