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Chapter 12 A&P

StudyGuide

QuestionAnswer
Visceral command center hypothalamus
Paietal lobe lined by the postcentral gyrus, parieto-occipital sulcus (on medial surface of the hemishere) and lateral sulca; covered by the partial bone.
Temporal lobe outlined by deep lateral sulcus that separates it from the partial and frontal lobe; covered by the temporal bone.
Insula lobe of cerebral cortex that is buried in the lateral sulcus beneath the portions partial, frontal and tmeporal bone.
Frontal lobe lined by the lateral and central sulcus (which is bordered by the precentral gyrus)
Occipital lobe separted from the partial lobe by parieto-occipital sulcus, covered by the occipital bone.
The suprachiasmatic nucleus is found in the hypothalamus
Nuclei of cranial nerves V, VI, and VII are found in the proximal aspect of the brain
The arbor vitae refers to distinctive pattern of white matter in the cerebellum
The brain stem consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
The primary auditory cortex is located in the superior margin of temporal lobe abutting the lateral sulcus
Spinocerebellar tracts transmit impulses from trunk & lower limbs to cerebellum for subconscious propriception
What cells line the ventricles of the brain Ependymal cells
The subarachnoid space lies between what two layers of meninges dura meter & arachnoid mater
The vital centers for the control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in the hypothalmus
Cell bodies of he sensory neurons of the spinal nerves are located in the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord What fissure separtes the cerebral hemispheres longitudinal fissure
How would you best describe the cerebrum cerbral hempisphere & structures of the diencephalon
A shallow groove on the surface of the cortex is called a sulcus
How would you describe the cerebral cortex the "executive suite" of nervous system; conscious mind
If the posterior portion of the neural tube failed to develop properly the spinal cord may be affected
The central sulcus separates which lobes frontal lobe & parietal lobe
Neural tracts that convey life-saving information to the brain concerning burning pain would be lateral spinothalamic
What do you find in the cerebral cortex motor areas, sensory areas, & association areas
An individual accidentally transected the spinal cord between T1 and L1. This would result in paraplegia
Spastic paralysis suggests involvement of the upper motor neuron of the primary motor cortex
Ridges of tissue on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres are called gyri
The frontal lobe is separated from the temporal lobe by the lateral sulcus
Damage of the primary motor cortex results in paralyzes the body muscles controlled by those areas
Two terms for the massive motor tracts serving voluntary movement are lateral corticospinal and ventral corticospinal
An individual who could trace a picture of a bicycle with his or her finger bug could not recognize it as a bicycle is most likely to have sustained damage to the visual association area
Broca's area lie anterior to the inferior region of the premotor area; special motor speech area that directs the muscles involved with speech production
What part of the cerebral cortex is involved in intellect, cognition, recall, and personality multimodal association area
the blood-brain barrier is effective against blood-brain metabolic wastes, proteins, certain toxins, and most drugs
What does the basal nuclei contain caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus
What makes up the midbrain cerebral peduncles, cerebral aqueduct, tectum, corpora quadrigemina, substania nigra, red nucleus
the process of linking new facts with old facts already stored in the memory bank is called consaliaton or association
What category of memory is involved when playing the piano procedual memory
The brain area that regulates activities that control the state wakefulness or alertness of the cerebral cortex is the reticular formation
What would you find in norml cerebrospinal fluid glucose, oxygen, vitamins, ions
REM sleep is associated with skeletal muscle paralysis & dreaming- rapid eye movement
What are functions of CSF forms a liquid cushion that forms buoyancy to CNS structure, reduce brain weight 97%
Injury to the hypothalmus may result in all of the following except loss of proprioception ( locomotion, posture, muscle tone)
What association of the function and location of the cerebrun can you make motor-anterior
Brain wave amplitude reflects the number of neurons firing synchronously
Important nuclei of the indirect system that receive impulses from the equilibrium apparatus of the inner ear and help to maintain balance by varying muscle tone of postual muscles are the vestibular nulei
What are structures of the brian directly involved in memory hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, amygdala
The area of the cortex that is responsible for sensations of the full bladder and the feeling that your longs will burst when you hold your breath too long is the visceral sensory area
How would you describe coma total unresponsiveness to stimuli for a long period of time
tremor at rest, shuffling gait, stooped posture, and expressionless face are characteristics of Parkinsons disease
What is the mildest consequence of traumatic brain injury concussion
Declarative memory is not stored in the mamillary body
What area of the brain is involved with motor activity precentral gyrus
What effect do you see with sleep requirements as you age sleep requirements steadily decline from infancy to adulthood, levels off, then declines again
How would you describe epilepsy torrent of electrical discharges of grups of brain neurons, no message can get through
White mtter is found in all of the following locations except cerebral cortex
Second-order neurons of both the specific and nonspecific ascending pathways terminate in the somatoscensory cortex
Loss of ability to perform skilled motor activities such as piano playing, with no paralysis or weakness in specific muscles, might suggest damage to the premotor complex
What brain waves are not normal for awake adults but are common for children? Theta waves
The fourth ventricle is continious with the of _____spinal cord central canal
The large commissure that connects the right and left sides of the brain is called the commissural fibers (corpuscallosum)
The infundibulum connects the hypothalamu to the pituitary gland
The structures that are valvelike and protrude externally through the dura mater to absorb cerebrospinal fluid into venous blood are the arachnoid cilli
Sensory neurons enter the spinal cord via the_____ horn lateral
_____memory requires practice, and is remembered by doing non declarative
The_______ includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus diencephalon
The two longitudinal ridges on the medulla oblongata where many descending fibers cross over are called the pyramids
The largest nuclear mass in the midbrain is the corpora quadrigemina
In stage 3 sleep,_______ and ________waves appear theta and delta
The _________is the main switch station for memory; if the right and left areas are damaged, the past is lost hippocampus
______rhythm is a 24-hour cycle of sleep and wakefulness circadian
_______is a temporary cessation of breathing during sleep found most commonly in the elderly sleep apnea
The_________is a protective mechanism that helps maintain a stable environment for the brain. blood-brain barrier
What is the cauda equina and why is it given this name? collection of nerve roots at the inferior end of the vertebral canal; resembles a horse's tail
Differentiate clearly between short-term and long-term memory short- working memory, limitedto 7 or 8 chunks of info long- limitless capacity
What secen area of the body does the hypothalamus control autonomic control center, center for emotioal response, body temperature regulation, regulation of food intake, regulation of water balance and thirst, regulation of sleep-wake cycles, control of endocrine system function
What is the limbic system group of structures located on the medial aspect of each cerebral hemisphere and diencephalon, emotional, or affective (feeling), brain
What might be a cause of dyslexia cerebral confusion
The stage when vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, and body temp) reach their lowest normal levels Stage 4
Indicated by movement of the eyes under the lids; dreaming occurs REM sleep
Theta and delta waves begin to appear Stage 3
Very easy to awaken; EEG shows alpha waves; may even deny being asleep Stage 1
Typifed by sleep spindles Stage 2
Begins about 90 minutes after the onset of sleep REM sleep
Necessary for emotional health; may be neural "debugging." REM sleep
Gateway to the Cerebrum Thalamus
Motor command center Cerebellum
Survival center Brain stem
Executive suit cerebrum/cortex
Visceral command center hypothalamus
NREM sleep normally exhibits four distinct stges, which appear to alternate. True
Petit mal seizures found in children generally go away with age. True
Specific motor and sensory functions are localized in specific areas called domains, whereas memory and language have overlapping domains. True
A Flat EEG is a good indication of deep sleep False; brain dead
The corpora quadrigemina superior colliculi are visual reflex centers, whereas the inferior colliculi are auditory reflex centers True
Cell bodies of the somatic motor neurons of the spinal nerves are located in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. True
Embryonic damage to th mesencphalon could fresult in improper formation of the midbrain True
One functional center found within the medulla oblongata is a respiratory center involved in the control of the rate and depth of breathing True
The primary visual cortex contains a map of visual space True
Most of the ascending and descendng pathways to and from the brain cross over from one side of the body to the other True
A disturbance of posture, muscle tremors at rest, and uncontrolled muscle contraction are all symptoms of damage to the basal nuclei True
The limbic system acts as our emotional, or affective, brain True
The left cerebral hemisphere is usually dominant True
The first obvious sign that the nervous system is forming in the embryo is the thickening of the surface ectoderm to form the neural plate True
The terms fainting and syncope describe the same thing True
Cerebrospinal fluid circulates within the bentricles of the brain and in the subarachnoid space outside the brain True