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DIGESTIVE DISEASES

Fundamentals of Disease Processes

QuestionAnswer
ORAL CANCER
Oral neoplasms commonly occur on the: 1. Floor (inferior portion) of the oral cavity.
Oral neoplasms commonly occur on the: 2. Lingua aka the tongue.
Oral neoplasms commonly occur on the: 3. Inferior oral labia aka the lower lip.
Labial (lips) are commonly associated with: pipe and cigar smoking
Carcinomas are malignant which means: the ability to metastasize (spread).
Carcinomas of the lingua (tongue), buccae (cheeks), and palates (oral roof): are commonly associated with chewing tobacco.
Diagnosis of an oral neoplasm is confirmed by analysis (examination) of a tissue specimen (sample) abbreviated Bx which stands for: biopsy.
Tx for an oral neoplasm (new growth) includes: surgery and beams of intense energy called radiation therapy.
ESOPHAGEAL CANCER
Signs and symptoms of an esophageal malignancy include: 1. Dysphagia which means difficulty swalowing.
Signs and symptoms of an esophageal malignancy include: 2. Gastric regurgitation (reflux) aka vomiting.
Signs and symptoms of an esophageal malignancy include: 3. Halitosis which means bad breath.
Signs and symptoms of an esophageal malignancy include: 4. Loss of weight.
Signs and symptoms of an esophageal malignancy include: 5. Aphagia which means inability to swallow.
Diagnosis of an esophageal malignancy can be confirmed (proven) with a UGI which stands for: upper gastrointestinal aka a barium swallow.
Diagnosis of an esophageal malignancy can be confirmed with: esophagoscopy which means a process of using a lighted instrument to view the esophagus.
The esophagus is a tube (duct) that connects the: pharynx (throat) to the stomach.
Diagnosis of esophageal malignancy can be confirmed (proven) by: analysis of a tissue specimen (sample) called a biopsy (Bx).
The prognosis (Px) (predicted outcome) for an esophageal malignancy is poor because metastasis (spread) usually occurs: before detection (awareness).
ESOPHAGITIS
Esophagitis means: inflammation of the esophagus.
Esophagitis is commonly caused by: GERD which stands for gastroesophageal reflux disease.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is commonly caused by an: incompetent (dysfunctional) cardiac sphincter (a ring of muscles that opens and closes) aka the lower esophageal sphincter.
An incompetent (dysfunctional) cardiac sphincter (lower esophageal sphincter) allows: HCl (hydrochloric acid) in the stomach to regurgitate (reflux) (backflow)..
Signs and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) include: 1. Dyspepsia which means difficult digestion (indigestion).
Signs and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) include: 2. Eructation which means belching (burping).
Signs and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) include: 3. Dysphagia which means difficult swallowing.
Signs and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) include: 4. Halitosis which means bad breath.
Signs and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) include: 5. Hematemesis which means vomiting blood.
Signs and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) include: 6. Thoracodynia which means chest pain.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can be exacerbated (worsened) by: a. Eating.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can be exacerbated (worsened) by: b. Drinking.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can be exacerbated (worsened) by: c. Bending over.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can be exacerbated (worsened) by: d. Lying down.
The risk of GERD increases with: 1. Being overweight or obese.
The risk of GERD increases with: 2. Pregnancy aka gestation.
Diagnosis ( identifying disease from signs (Sx and Symptoms (SX) of GERD is confirmed with a gastroscopy which means: process of using a lighted instrument to view the stomach.
Treatment for GERD includes: 1. Nonirritating nutrition called a bland diet.
Treatment for GERD includes 2. Medications to reduce the production of hydrochloric acid and medications to neutralize (counteract) its pH.
HIATAL HERNIA (HH)
Hiatal hernia means: protrusion (bulging) of the stomach through the primary muscle of ventilation (breathing) called the diaphragm. Hiatal hernia is aka a diaphragmatic hernia.
Signs and symptoms of a hiatal hernia include: 1. Dyspepsia which means difficult digestion aka indigestion.
Signs and symptoms of a hiatal hernia include: 2. Postprandial dyspepsia which means difficult digestion (indigestion) after meals.
Signs and symptoms of a hiatal hernia include: 3. SOB which stands for shortness of breath.
A hiatal hernia can cause the cardiac sphincter to become incompetent (dysfunctional) resulting in: GERD which stands for gastroesophageal reflux disease.
Diagnosis of a hiatal hernia is confirmed by: 1. Chest x-ray.
Diagnosis of a hiatal hernia is confirmed by: 2. UGI which stands for upper gastrointestinal aka a barium swallow.
Treatment for a hiatal hernia includes avoidance of: a. Peppery hot edibles called spicy foods.
Treatment for a hiatal hernia includes avoidance of: b. ETOH which stands for ethanol (alcohol).
Treatment for a hiatal hernia includes avoidance of: c. Caffeine found in coffee and tea and some sodas and some medications.
Treatment for a hiatal hernia includes avoidance of: d. Losing weight and use of an abdominal support.
Hiatal hernia means: protrusion (bulging) of the stomach through the diaphragm aka a diaphragmatic hernia.
Treatment for a hiatal hernia incudes: hernioplasty which means surgical repair of a hernia.
GASTRITIS
Gastritis means: inflammation of the stomach.
Gastritis is commonly caused by: irritants.
Gastric (stomach) irritants include: 1. NSAIDS which stands for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Gastric (stomach) irritants include 2. Caffeine found in coffee, tea, sodas and some medications.
Gastric (stomach) irritants include 3. Peppery hot edibles called spicy foods.
Gastric (stomach) irritants include 4. ETOH which stands for ethanol (alcohol).
Signs and symptoms of gastritis include: 1. Abdominalgia (abdominal pain) especially in the LUQ which stands for left upper quadrant.
Signs and symptoms of gastritis include: 2. Dyspepsia which means difficult digestion aka indigestion.
Signs and symptoms of gastritis include: 3. Hemaemesis which means vomiting blood.
Signs and symptoms of gastritis include: 4. Melena which means black, tarry, pungent, (strong smelling) stools.
Diagnosis of gastritis is confirmed with: 1. Gastroscopy which means process of using a lighted instrument to view the stomach.
Diagnosis of gastritis is confirmed with: 2. Biopsy.
Treatment for gastritis includes: 1. Nonirritating nutrition referred to as a bland diet.
Treatment for gastritis includes 2. Mediations to reduce the production of hydrochloric acid and medications to neutralize (counteract) its pH.
Untreated gastritis can result in an erosion (destruction) of the gastric (stomach) mucosa (mucous membranes) called an: ulcer.
PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE
Peptic ulcer (erosion (destruction or wearing away) disease (PUD) occurs in the: stomach and/or duodenum.
The duodenum is the: 1st section of the small intestine.
The primary symptoms (evidence of a disease that is felt) of peptic ulcer disease is a: hurting discomfort in the belly (gut) called abdominal pain.
Diagnosis of peptic ulcer disease can be confirmed with: 1. UGI which stands for upper gastrointestinal aka barium swallow.
Diagnosis of peptic ulcer disease can be confirmed with: 2. EGD which stands for esophagogastroduodenoscopy.
Peptic ulcer disease is exacerbated by: 1. Excessive production of HCl which stands for hydrochloric acid. Excessive production of hydrochloric acid is associated with poorly controlled stress.
Peptic ulcer disease is exacerbated by: 2. NSAIDS which stand for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Peptic ulcer disease is exacerbated by: 3. Caffeine found in coffee and tea, some sodas and some medications.
Peptic ulcer disease is exacerbated by: 4. Peppery hot edibles called spicy foods.
Peptic ulcer disease is exacerbated by: 5. ETOH which stands for ethanol (alcohol).
Treatment for peptic ulcer disease includes: 1. Nonirritating nutrition called a bland diet.
Treatment for peptic ulcer disease includes: 2 Medications to decrease the production of and neutralize (counteract) the pH of HCl which stands for hydrochloric acid.
Milk is contraindicated as a treatment for peptic ulcer disease because: milk can stimulate (cause) the stomach to produce more HCl.
Complications associated with peptic ulcer disease include: a. Perforation which means rip or tear.
Complications associated with peptic ulcer disease include: b. A rapid flow of blood called hemorrhage.
Signs and symptoms of a peptic ulcer perforation include: 1. Extreme abdominalgia which means abdominal pain.
Signs and symptoms of a peptic ulcer perforation include: 2. Hematemesis which means vomiting blood.
Signs and symptoms of a peptic ulcer perforation include: 3. Melena which means black, tarry, pungent (strong smelling) feces (stool).
Peptic ulcer perforation allows microbes to escape from the stomach and/or duodenum that cause a life-threatening inflammation of the abdominal lining called: peritonitis.
Peptic ulcer perforation requires: surgical repair.
GASTROENTERITIS
Gastroenteritis means: Inflammation of the stomach and small intestine aka small bowel.
Escherichia coli (E. coli) in the large intestine (large bowel or colon) are normal flora which means: therapeutic (beneficial) microorganisms (microbes)
Causes of gastroenteritis include ingesting (eating) bacteria such as: listeria and/or salmonella which can be found in a: Raw or poorly cooked meats and eggs.
Causes of gastroenteritis include ingesting (eating) bacteria such as: b. Unpasteurized dairy (milk and cheese). Pasteurize means using heat to destroy microbes.
Proliferation of Listeria is called: listeriosis.
Proliferation (rapid reproduction (infection))of salmonella is called: salmonellosis aka food poisening.
Causes of gastroenteritis include ingesting (eating) the Norovirus which can be found in: a. Any food served raw.
Causes of gastroenteritis include ingesting (eating) the Norovirus which can be found in: b. Food handled by someone with Norovirus.
Signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis include: 1. Pyrexia which means fever.
Signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis include: 2. Colicky dysentery which means painful small intestine (small bowel) spasms (involuntary muscle contractions).
Signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis include: 3. N+V which means nausea and vomiting. Vomiting more than 10 times in 24 hours is called severe vomiting.
Signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis include: 4. Diarrhea which means loose watery stools. More than 10 loose watery stools in 24 hours is called severe diarrhea.
A complication associated with gastroenteritis is deficient body fluid called: dehydration. Untreated dehydration can result in a life-threatening condition from the deficient amount of body fluid called hypovolemic shock.
Treatment for gastroenteritis includes: 1. Administration (giving) of fluids within a vein called intravenous (IV) hydration.
Treatment for gastroenteritis includes: 2. Antibiotic therapy for bacterial infections caused by E. coli or Salmonella or Listeria.
Treatment for gastroenteritis includes: 3. Medications against vomiting called antiemetics.
Treatment for gastroenteritis includes: 4. Medications against diarrhea called antidiarrheals.
Treatment for gastroenteritis includes: 5. Medications against involuntary muscle contractions (cramps) of the gastrointestinal tract called GI antispasmodics. Tract means passageway.
Prevention of gastroenteritis includes: 1. Slowing microbial proliferation with refrigeration (cooling) of food below 40F.
Prevention of gastroenteritis includes: 2. Thorough (complete) cooking of foods.
Prevention of gastroenteritis includes: 3. Not washing fowl which means poultry. Washing fowl (poultry) can splash microorganisms onto food preparation utensils and countertops.
Prevention of gastroenteritis includes preventing cross-contamination by: 4. Separating ready to eat foods such as breads, fruit and vegetables from raw meat, poultry, seafood and eggs.
Prevention of gastroenteritis includes: 5. Washing your hands properly between the preparation of each food item.
GASTRIC CANCER
Gastric malignancies are common in men over the age of: 55. Gastric means stomach.
Signs and symptoms of a gastric (stomach) malignancy include: 1. Anorexia which means no appetite.
Signs and symptoms of a gastric (stomach) malignancy include: 2. Dyspnea which means difficult digestion.
Signs and symptoms of a gastric (stomach) malignancy include: 3. Nausea and vomiting.
Signs and symptoms of a gastric (stomach) malignancy include: 4. Erythrocytopenia (deficient RBCs) associated with vitamin B12 deficiency abbreviated PA which means pernicious anemia.
Signs and symptoms of a gastric (stomach) malignancy include: 5. Achlorhydria which means no hydrochloric acid. Malignancy means the ability to metastasize which means spread.
Diagnosis of a gastric malignancy is confirmed with: 1. Gastroscopy which means process of using a lightd instrument to view the stomach.
Diagnosis of a gastric malignancy is confirmed with: 2. Analysis (examination) of a tissue specimen (sample) called a biopsy (Bx).
Treatment for a gastric (stomach) malignancy includes: 1. Surgery and beams of intense energy called radiation therapy.
Treatment for a gastric (stomach) malignancy includes: 2. Chemotherapy aka antineoplastic medication.
The prognosis for gastric malignancy is good if detected before: metastasis (spread). Prognosis means predicted outcome of pathology (disease).
Gastric (stomach) malignancy risk increases with: 1. Bacteria that damage the gastric mucosa abbreviated H. pylori which stands for helicobacter pylori. Mucosa means mucous membranes.
Gastric (stomach) malignancy risk increases with: 2. A diet deficient in fresh fruits and vegetables.
Gastric (stomach) malignancy risk increases with: 3. Consumption of meat that has been smoked, and/or grilled and/or charred.
Gastric (stomach) malignancy risk increases with: 4. Chronic gastritis which means persistent inflammation of the stomach.
Gastric (stomach) malignancy risk increases with: 5. Genetic history which means familial (hereditary) history.
APPENDICITIS )
The appendix is a finger-like projection off: the cecum. The cecum is the first (1st) section of the large intestine (Iarge bowel or colon).
Appendicitis means: inflammation of the appendix.
Signs and symptoms of appendicitis include: 1. Pyrexia which means fever.
Signs and symptoms of appendicitis include: 2. N+V which stands for nausea and vomiting.
Signs and symptoms of appendicitis include: 3. Leukocytosis which means excessive leukocytes (WBCs).
Signs and symptoms of appendicitis include: 4. Abdominal rebound tenderness (pain) in the right inguinal (iliac) region.
Treatment for appendicitis includes: laparoscopic appendectomy which means surgical removal (excision) of the appendix using lighted instruments inserted through the abdominal wall.
Complications of untreated appendicitis include: the appendix becoming gangrenous which means putrefaction (rot). A gangrenous appendix leads to appendorrhexis which means rupture (bursting) of the appendix.
An appendorrhexis allows microbes to escape from the large intestine that cause a life threatening inflammation of the abdominal lining called: peritonitis.
MALABSORPTION SYNDROME
Malabsorption syndrome results from the small intestine's inability to take in: fat. The small intestine is aka the small bowel.
Malabsorption syndrome (small intestine's inability to take in fat) causes the stool (feces) to become: 1. Unformed.
2. Greasy.
3. Pale.
4. Pungent (strong smelling).
5. Floaters.
The small intestine's inability to take in fat results in malabsorption of the four (4) fat soluble vitamins named: A, D, E, and K. Vitamin K deficiency can cause a coagulopathy which means disease condition of clotting.
Treatment for malabsorption syndrome includes (intramuscular) IM injections of the four (4) at soluble vitamins named: A, D, E and K.
DIVERTICULOSIS
Diverticulosis is an active (sudden) and chronic (persistent) condition of blister-like pouches called: diverticula that commonly develop in the sigmoid colon. The sigmoid colon is the 5th section of the large intestine.
Diverticulosis risk increases with: 1. Chronic constipation which means persistent difficult defection.
Diverticulosis risk increases with: 2. A diet deficient in fiber. Foods rich in fiber include fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Twenty percent of people with diverticulosis will develop diverticulitis which means inflammation of diverticula.
Signs and symptoms of diverticulitis include: 1. Hurting discomfort in the LLQ belly (gut) which means left lower quadrant abdominal pain.
Signs and symptoms of diverticulitis include: 2. Bright red blood in the stool (feces).
Complications of diverticulitis include: 1. Formation of abscesses which means collection of pus.
Complications of diverticulitis include: 2. Development of an ileus which means bowel obstructio.
Complications of diverticulitis include: 3. Bowel perforation which means rip or tear.
Bowel perforation (rip or tear) can cause a life-threatening inflammation of the abdominal lining called: peritonitis.
Bowel perforation (rip or tear) requires: surgical repair.
Diagnosis of diverticulosis is confirmed (proven) with a: 1. BE or BaE which stand for barium enema. Barium enema is aka LGI which stands for lower gastrointestinal.
Diagnosis of diverticulosis is confirmed (proven) with a: 2. Colonoscopy which means process of using a lighted instrument to view the colon (large intestine or large bowel).
Treatment for diverticulitis includes: 1. Increasing fluid intake to reduce the incidence of difficult defecation called constipation. Incidence means frequency.
Treatment for diverticulitis includes: 2. Increasing dietary fiber by ingesting (eating) more fruits, whole grains and vegetables.
Treatment for diverticulitis includes: 3. Antibiotic therapy for bacterial infections.
BOWEL OBSTRUCTIONS
A bowel obstruction is aka: an ileus.
An ileus (bowel obstruction) caused by decreased peristaltic activity (peristalsis) is called a: paralytic ileus.
An ileus (bowel obstruction) caused by the intestine twisting on itself is called a: volvulus (garden hose). An obstruction is aka an occlusion or blockage.
An ileus caused by he intestine telescoping on itself is called: intussusception (sock turned inside out). An ileus is a bowel obstruction.
An ileus can occur from tissue sticking together called: adhesions. Adhesions can result from inflammation and/or trauma (injury).
Signs and symptoms of an ileus (bowel obstruction) include: 1. A hurting discomfort in the belly (gut) called abdominal pain.
Signs and symptoms of an ileus (bowel obstruction) include: 2. Abdominal distention which means stretched out.
Signs and symptoms of an ileus (bowel obstruction) include: 3. Severe vomiting and constipation caused by an ileus called obstipation.
Diagnosis of an ileus is confirmed with an abdominal CT which stands for:
Treatment for an ileus (bowel obstruction) includes a: laparoscopic bowel resection which means process of using a lighted instrument to view the abdominal cavity and surgical removal (excision) of an intestinal section.
ULCERATIVE COLITIS (UC)
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an idiopathic autoimmune IBD which stands for: inflammatory bowel disease. Idiopathic means unknown cause.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized (described) by: inflammation and development of erosions (ulcers) in the large intestine (large bowel or colon).
Ulcerative colitis (UC) increases the risk of large intestine (large bowel) metastatic neoplasms which are: malignant new growths. Ulcerative colitis can be exacerbated (worsened) by poorly controlled stress.
Ulcerative colitis commonly has alternating periods of remission and exacerbation which means: symptoms subside (diminish and symptoms worsen.
Signs and symptoms of ulcerative colitis (UC) include: 1. Hurting discomfort in the inferior (lower) belly (gut) called abdominal pain.
Signs and symptoms of ulcerative colitis (UC) include: 2. Weight loss from anorexia which means no appetite.
Signs and symptoms of ulcerative colitis (UC) include: 3. Chronic constipation which means persistent difficult defecation.
Signs and symptoms of ulcerative colitis (UC) include: 4. Chronic (sometimes bloody) diarrhea which means persistent loose watery stools.
Signs and symptoms of ulcerative colitis (UC) include: 5. Anemia which means Erythrocytopenia and/or deficient Hgb which stands for hemoglobin. Erythrocytopenia means deficient erythrocytes (RBCs).
Diagnosis of ulcerative colitis (UC) is confirmed with: 1. Colonoscopy which means process of using a lighted instrument to view the colon.
Diagnosis of ulcerative colitis (UC) is confirmed with: 2. Analysis (examination) of a tissue specimen (sample) called a biopsy.
Complications associated with UC include: 1. Bowel perforation which means rip or tear.
Bowel perforation (rip or tear) can cause a life-threatening inflammation of the abdominal lining calle: peritonitis.
Bowel perforation (rip or tear) requires: surgical repair.
Complications associated with UC include: 2. Colon malignancy which may require a colostomy which means artificial opening into the colon (large intestine or large bowel).
Malignancy means the ability to: metastasize (spread)
Treatment for ulcerative colitis includes: 1. SAIDS which stands for steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Treatment for ulcerative colitis includes: 2. Analgesics which are pain relievers.
Treatment for ulcerative colitis includes: 3. Medications against loose watery stools (feces) called antidiarrheals.
Treatment for ulcerative colitis includes: 4. Antibiotic therapy for bacterial infections.
Treatment for ulcerative colitis includes: 5. Medications to reduce the body's protective (defensive) response called immunosuppressants such as Entyvio IV.
CROHN'S DISEASE
Crohn's disease (CD) is an idiopathic autoimmune (IBD) which stands for: inflammatory bowel disease. Idiopathic means unknown cause.
Crohn's disease commonly causes inflammation of the: ileum which is the 3rd section of the small bowel and cecum which is the 1st section of the large bowel.
Crohn's disease can be exacerbated (worsened) by: smoking and poorly controlled stress.
Crohn's disease increases the risk of bowel metastatic neoplasms which are: malignant new growths.
Signs and symptoms of Crohn's disease include: 1. Hurting discomfort in the inferior (lower) belly (gut) aka abdominal pain.
Signs and symptoms of Crohn's disease include: 2. Weight loss from anorexia which means no appetite.
Signs and symptoms of Crohn's disease include: 3. Chronic (sometimes bloody) diarrhea which means persistent loose watery stools.
Signs and symptoms of Crohn's disease include: 4. Anemia which means Erythrocytopenia (deficient RBCs) and/or deficient hemoglobin (Hgb).
Diagnosis of Crohn's disease is confirmed with: 1. Colonoscopy which means process of using a lighted instrument to view the colon.
Diagnosis of Crohn's disease is confirmed with: 2. Analysis (examination) of a tissue specimen (sample) called a biopsy.
Complications associated with Crohn's disease include: 1. Development of an ileus which means bowel obstruction. An ileus may require a bowel resection which means surgical removal.
Complications associated with Crohn's disease include: 2. Formation of anal and rectal fistulas which are abnormal passageways.
Treatment for Crohn's disease includes: 1. SAIDS which stands for steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Treatment for Crohn's disease includes: 2. Analgesics which are pain relievers.
Treatment for Crohn's disease includes: 3. Medications against loose watery stools (feces) called antidiarrheals.
Treatment for Crohn's disease includes: 4. Antibiotic therapy for bacterial infections.
Treatment for Crohn's disease includes: 5. Medications to reduce the body's protective (defensive) response called immunosuppressants such as Entyvio IV.
COLORECTAL CANCER
Colorectal carcinoma is a malignancy which means the ability to: metastasize (spread).
Colorectal carcinoma commonly occurs (happens) in the: rectum or sigmoid colon.
Colorectal carcinoma can sometimes be palpated by DRE which stands for: digital rectal examination.
Diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma is confirmed (proven) by: 1. Colonoscopy which means process of using a lighted instrument to view the colon.
Diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma is confirmed (proven) by: 2. Analysis (examination) of a tissue specimen (sample) called a biopsy (Bx).
Early signs and symptoms of colorectal carcinoma include: 1. A change in the defecation routine aka bowel habit.
Early signs and symptoms of colorectal carcinoma include: 2. A hurting discomfort in the belly (gut) called abdominal pain.
Early signs and symptoms of colorectal carcinoma include: 3. Occult blood in the feces (stool) which means hidden blood that cannot be seen with the naked eye.
FBOT stands for: fecal occult blood test.
Early signs and symptoms of colorectal carcinoma include: 4. Anemia which means Erythrocytopenia (deficient RBCs) and/o deficient hemoglobin (Hgb).
Colorectal carcinoma commonly occurs (happens) in the: rectum or sigmoid colon.
Early detection of colorectal carcinoma can occur (happen) with: 1. Annual physical examination that includes FOBT which stands for fecal occult blood test.
Risk factors for colorectal carcinoma include: 1. Long standing UC which stands for ulcerative colitis.
Risk factors for colorectal carcinoma include: 2. Polyposis (colon polyps) which are premalignant neoplasms (new growths) in the large intestine (large bowel).
Risk factors for colorectal carcinoma include: 3. A diet rich I red meat and/or fat.
Risk factors for colorectal carcinoma include: 4. A diet deficient in fiber and/or Ca which stands for calcium (less than 700 mg/day).
SPASTIC COLON
Spastic colon is a chronic (persistent) condition of the large intestine abbreviated IBS which stands for: irritable bowel syndrome.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a bowel motility disorder causing involuntary contractions called: spasms. Motility refers to peristaltic activity aka peristalsis.
Signs and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome include: 1. Abdominal spasm pain called cramps.
Signs and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome include: 2. Sudden loose watery stools called diarrhea.
Signs and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome include: 3. Constipation which means difficult defecation.
Signs and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome include: 4. Excessive flatulence (flatus) which is gas expelled through the anus.
Symptoms of IBS tend to exacerbate with poorly controlled: stress.
Treatment for irritable bowel syndrome includes: 1. Medications against digestive involuntary muscle contractions called gastrointestinal (GI) antispasmodics.
Treatment for irritable bowel syndrome includes: 2. Medications against loose watery stools called antidiarrheals.
Treatment for irritable bowel syndrome includes: 3. Medications to reduce anxiety (stress) called sedatives.
CIRRHOSIS
Cirrhosis is a chronic degeneration of: liver cells. Degeneration means deterioration or degradation.
Cirrhosis (liver degeneration) can be caused by: 1. Daily consumption of 2-3 alcoholic beverages.
Cirrhosis (liver degeneration) can be caused by: 2. Men consuming 5 or more alcoholic beverages within 2-3 hours or women consuming 4 or more alcoholic beverages within 2-3 hours called binge drinking.
Cirrhosis (liver degeneration) can be caused by contracting (catching) the: 3. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) abbreviated HBV and HCV which stand for hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus.
Cirrhosis (liver degeneration) can be caused by contracting (catching) the: 4. Over use of medications such as Tylenol aka acetaminophen, Motrin aka ibuprofen,
Signs and symptoms of ADVANCED cirrhosis include: 1. Tremors which refers to shakiness.
Signs and symptoms of ADVANCED cirrhosis include: 2. Somnolence which means excessive sleepiness.
Signs and symptoms of ADVANCED cirrhosis include: 3. Disorientation which means mental confusion.
Signs and symptoms of ADVANCED cirrhosis include: 4. Gynecomastia which means breast development in males.
Signs and symptoms of ADVANCED cirrhosis include: 5. Thoracic alopecia which means chest hair loss.
Signs and symptoms of ADVANCED cirrhosis include: 6. Testicular atrophy which means no development of the testicles (testes).
Signs and symptoms of ADVANCED cirrhosis include: 7. Splenomegaly which means enlargement of the spleen.
Signs and symptoms of ADVANCED cirrhosis include: 8. Hepatomegaly which means enlargement of the liver.
Signs and symptoms of ADVANCED cirrhosis include: 9. Hepatic nodules (bumps) called a "hobnailed liver".
Signs and symptoms of ADVANCED cirrhosis include: 10. Accumulation of fluid in the abdomen called ascites.
Signs and symptoms of ADVANCED cirrhosis include: 11. Coagulopathy which means disease condition of coagulation (clotting).
Signs and symptoms of ADVANCED cirrhosis include: 12. Pedal edema which means swelling of the feet and ankles.
Signs and symptoms of ADVANCED cirrhosis include: 13. Swollen, twisted, knotty veins (varicosities) in the tube connecting the pharynx (throat) to the stomach called esophageal varices.
Signs and symptoms of ADVANCED cirrhosis include: 14. A yellow discoloration to the skin and/or sclerae (the whites of the eyes) called jaundice or icterus.
Signs and symptoms of ADVANCED cirrhosis include: 15. Hepatic coma which means unconsciousness without response to stimuli. Stimuli are changes in the environment.
Diagnosis of cirrhosis is confirmed with: 1. LFT which stands for liver function tests.
Diagnosis of cirrhosis is confirmed with: 2. Analysis (examination) of a tissue specimen (sample) called a biopsy.
Liver function tests include: 1. AST
Liver function tests include: 2. ALT
Liver function tests include: 3. Alk. phos or ALP which stands for Alkaline phosphatase.
Liver function tests include: 4. Bili which stands for biliruben.
VIRAL HEPATITIS
Hepatitis means: inflammation of the liver. Viral hepatitis is commonly caused by viruses named A or B or C.
HEPATITIS A VIRUS
A hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is the: least serious and is usually transmitted by ingesting (eating) feces (stool). Transmitted means spread.
Signs and symptoms of a hepatitis A virus infection include: 1. Fatigue which is loss of energy.
Signs and symptoms of a hepatitis A virus infection include: 2. Anorexia which is no appetite.
Signs and symptoms of a hepatitis A virus infection include: 3. Pyrexia greater than 98.6F but less than 100.4F is called low grade fever.
Signs and symptoms of a hepatitis A virus infection include: 4. N+V which stands for nausea and vomiting.
Signs and symptoms of a hepatitis A virus infection include: 5. A hurting discomfort in the RUQ belly (gut) which means right upper quadrant abdominal pain.
Signs and symptoms of a hepatitis A virus infection include: 6. Cephalgia abbreviated HA which stands for headache.
Signs and symptoms of a hepatitis A virus infection include: 7. Arthralgia which means joint pain.
Signs and symptoms of a hepatitis A virus infection include: 8. Clay-colored stools (feces).
Signs and symptoms of a hepatitis A virus infection include: 9. Darkened urine from bilirubinemia which means bilirubin in the urine.
Signs and symptoms of a hepatitis A virus infection include: 10. A yellow discoloration in the skin and/or sclerae called jaundice or icterus (icteric). Sclerae are the whites of the eyes.
The prognosis for a HAV infection: is good with no permanent hepatic (liver) damage and usually a lasting immunity. HAV stands for hepatitis A virus.
Immunity to the hepatitis A virus (HAV) can also be achieved by receiving the: hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccination. Vaccination is immunization or inoculation.
HEPATITIS B VIRUS (HBV)
A hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can cause chronic (recurring) hepatitis and degeneration called: cirrhosis. Degeneration means deterioration (degradation). Signs and symptoms are similar to hepatitis A infection.
Transmission (spread) of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the same as: HIV which stands for human immunodeficiency virus. The HIV virus causes AIDS which stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
The most common way to transmit the hepatitis B virus and HIV is: exposure to semen and vaginal secretions during intimate physical contact called sexual activity.
HBV and HIV can also be transmitted: perinatally which refers to the time during gestation aka pregnancy and parturition aka childbirth and breastfeeding aka nursing.
HBV and HIV can also be transmitted parenterally which refers to: contaminated needle sticks and direct physical contact with hazardous body fluids.
Carriers of the HBV can be: asymptomatic which means no symptoms.
HBV can cause: fulminating hepatitis where the infected person can suddenly lapse (fall) into a coma and die.
A lasting immunity can be achieved against the HBV by: vaccination (immunization) or complete recovery from a HBV infection. Those who do not completely recover from a HBV infection and can still transmit (spread) the HBV are called carriers.
Treatment for a HBV virus infection includes: antiviral therapy. Antiviral therapy is designed to slow viral proliferation.
HEPATITIS C VIRUS
Signs and symptoms of a HCV infection: are similar to the HBV. A HCV infection is insidious which means slow to develop. Hepatic degeneration from a HCV infection may go unnoticed for 20-30 years.
80% of people with HCV infection will develop: a. A chronic (persistent) degeneration (deterioration of liver cells called cirrhosis.
80% of people with HCV infection will develop: b. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) which means liver malignancy.
HCV is the #1 reason for a person to require (need) a: hepatic graft aka a liver transplant.
The most common way to transmit HCV is: exposure to semen and vaginal secretions during intimate physical contact called sexual activity.
HCV can also be transmitted: a. During gestation aka pregnancy and parturition aka childbirth.
HCV can also be transmitted: b. Parenterally which refers to contaminated needle sticks + contact with hazardous body fluids.
CHOLECYSTITIS
Cholecystitis means: inflammation of the gall bladder.
Cholecystitis commonly results from: obstruction (occlusion) of a bile duct by cholelithiasis which means gall stones aka biliary calculi. Duct means vessel or tube.
Biliary obstruction can result in: hepatic (liver) damage.
Increased incidence of cholelithiasis (gall stones) is associated with: 1. Postpartum women which means after birth.
Increased incidence of cholelithiasis (gall stones) is associated with: 2. Diabetes mellitus.
Increased incidence of cholelithiasis (gall stones) is associated with: 3. A chronic (recurring) degeneration (deterioration) of liver cells called cirrhosis.
Increased incidence of cholelithiasis (gall stones) is associated with: 4. Pancreatitis which means inflammation of the pancreas.
Signs and symptoms of cholelithiasis (gall stones) include: 1. RUQ abdominal pain radiating to the right shoulder, especially after eating a mal rich in fat.
Signs and symptoms of cholelithiasis (gall stones) include: 2. N+V which stands for nausea and vomiting.
Signs and symptoms of cholelithiasis (gall stones) include: 3. A yellow discoloration of the skin and/or sclerae (whites of the eyes) called jaundice or icterus.
Diagnosis of cholelithiasis (gall stones) is confirmed with: 1. MRC which stands for magnetic resonance cholangiogram.
Diagnosis of cholelithiasis (gall stones) is confirmed with: 2. GBUS which stands for gallbladder ultrasound.
Treatment for cholelithiasis (gall stones) includes: 1. Laparoscopic cholelithectomy which means surgical removal (excision) of gall stones using lighted instruments inserted into the abdomen.
Treatment for cholelithiasis (gall stones) includes: 2. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy which means surgical removal (excision) of the gall bladder using lighted instruments inserted in the abdomen.
PANCREATITIS
Pancreatitis means: inflammation of the pancreas. Pancreatitis is commonly associated with alcoholism in men and gallbladder (GB) disease in women.
Pancreatitis can cause pancreatic digestive enzymes to activate prematurely causing the pancreas to: digest (dissolve).
Signs and symptoms of pancreatitis include: 1. A hurting discomfort in the LUQ belly (gut) which means left upper quadrant abdominal pain.
Signs and symptoms of pancreatitis include: 2. N+V which stands for nausea and vomiting.
Signs and symptoms of pancreatitis include: 3. A yellow discoloration of the skin and/or sclerae called jaundice or icterus.
Unresolved pancreatitis can be: fatal (deadly)
PANCREATIC CANCER
Risk factors for a pancreatic malignancy include: 1. Male gender.
Risk factors for a pancreatic malignancy include: 2. Smoking.
Risk factors for a pancreatic malignancy include: 3. High protein diet and high fat diet.
Risk factors for a pancreatic malignancy include: 4. Alcohol (ETOH).
Risk factors for a pancreatic malignancy include: 5. Diabetes mellitus (DM).
Signs and symptoms of pancreatic malignancy include: 1. A hurting discomfort in the LUQ belly (gut) abdominal pain.
Signs and symptoms of pancreatic malignancy include: 2. Weight loss from anorexia which means no appetite.
Signs and symptoms of pancreatic malignancy include: 3. A yellow discoloration of the skin and/or sclerae called jaundice or icterus.
Diagnosis of pancreatic malignancy is confirmed (proven) with: 1. Abdominal CT which stands for computerized tomography.
Diagnosis of pancreatic malignancy is confirmed (proven) with: 2. Abdominal MRI which stands for magnetic resonance imaging.
Diagnosis of pancreatic malignancy is confirmed (proven) with: 3. Analysis (examination) of a tissue specimen (sample) called a biopsy.
The prognosis for pancreatic malignancy is very poor due to: early metastasis (spread).
Created by: bterrelonge