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MT - Ch. 15

Essentials of Medical Terminology - Ch. 15

cheeks are lined with buccal mucosa
hard & soft palates separate the mouth from the nasal cavity
uvula closes off the nasal passage during swallowing
tongue (most versatile muscle in the body) is for talk, taste, & swallowing (roughness comes from papillae, which sense sweet, sour, salt, & bitter)
temporary teeth are called deciduous
types of teeth are incisors, canines, bicuspids, & molars
incisors & canines (cuspids) located toward the front of the mouth
bicuspids (premolors) & molars located toward the back of the mouth
the crown is located above the gums
the root below the gums
teeth consist (from inside out) pulp, enamel, dentin, & cementum
front teeth tear food
back teeth masticate it
swallowing is deglutition
the food (bolus) passes through the pharynx to the esophagus
bolus moves down the esophagus by peristalsis & into the stomach through the lower esophageal sphincter
food enter the stomach through the lower esophageal sphincter & leaves through the pyloric sphincter
the bolus is mixed with gastric juices to form chyme
rugae the folds of the stomach, walls
regions of stomach are cardia, fundus, body, & antrum
curves of stomach are lesser & greater
small intestine is 1 inch in diameter & 21 feet long
3 regions of small intestine are duodenum, jejunum, & ileum
small intestine nutrients are absorbed by villa, which protrude from the plicae circulares (inner surface area is greatly increased by folds)
waste leaves the ileoecal valve
large intestine is 5 feet long & 2.4 inches in diameter
large intestine absorbs water, vitamin K, and some B vitamins & eliminates waste
region of the large intestine are cecum, the colon, & rectum
the rectum of large intestine includes anal canal, anus, & external & internal sphincters
salivary glands (located outside the mouth & drain saliva into the oral cavity via slivary ducts) are the parotid, submandibular, & sublingual
liver produce bile; breakdown carbohydrates, fats, & proteins; stores sugar, vitamins A,D,E,&K, iron & copper; detoxifies harmful substances; & synthesizes blood-clotting factors prothrobim & fibringen
gallbladder stores bile
biliary system consists of the gallbladder, hepatic ducts, cystic ducts, & common bile ducts
pancreas secretes pancreatic juice, which runs through the pancreatic duct to the duodenum
pancreas also secretes insulin & glucagon, which regulate blood sugar
chol/e bile; gall
hiat/o gape; opening
intestin/o intestine
umbilic/o navel
-clysis washing; irrigation
-flux flow
-lytic pertaining to destruction, separation, or breakdown
-tresia opening
-tripsy crushing
re- back
retro- backward; back
an/o anus
-al pertaining to
rect/o rectum
anorectal pertaining to the anus & rectum
peri- around
perianal pertaining to aroun the anus
append/o; appendic/o appendix
appendectomy surgical removal of the appendix
appendicitis inflammation of the appendix
bil/i bile
biliary pertaining to bile
bucc/o cheek
mucosa mucous membrane
buccal mucosa pertaining to the mucous membrane of the cheek
cec/o cecum
-pexy surgical fixation
cecopexy surgical fixation of the cecum
cheil/o lipa
cheiloplasty surgical repair of the lips
cheilorrhaphy suturing of the lips
rrhaphy suture (to sew)
cheilosis abnormal condition of the lips characterized by deep cracklike sores
cholangi/o bile duct; bile vessel
cholangiogram record of the bile ducts
cholangiopancreatography process of recording the bile ducts & pancreas
cholecyst/o gallbladder
cholecystectomy excision of the gallbladder
cholecystitis inflammation of the gallbladder
choledoch/o common bile duct (CBD)
choledochotomy incision into the common bile duct
col/o; colon/o colon
colitis inflammation of the colon
colocolostomy creation of a new opening between two segments of the colon; anastomosis b/w two segments of the colon
anastomosis surgical joining of two structures that are normally separate
colostomy creation of a new opening b/w the colon and the abdominal wall
dent/o; odont/o tooth
e- without
edentulous without teeth; having had teeth but lost them
dental caries tooth decay
caries decay; cavities
endodontist dentist who specialized in the diagnosis & treatment of diseases within the tooth such as pulp
orthodontist dentist who specialized in the correction of deformed or maloccluded teeth
ortho- straight
periodontist specialist in diseases of tissue around the tooth such as the gums & cementum
periodontium structures around the tooth are collectively
duoden/o duodenum
duodenal pertaining to the duodenum
enter/o small intestine; intestine
gastroenteritis inflammation of the stomach & intestines
gastroenterology study of the stomach & intestines including diseases & treatment
Created by: ltravis