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Cross Sectional Survey A survey about a single point in time
Longitudinal survey A survey over a period of time
Group Administered Surveys Appropriate when targeting a specific group. High and quick response rate. Difficulty getting people to come take the survey.
Drop-Off Surveys Survey dropped off at someone’s business or home. Response rate higher than mailed because of personal contact. Expensive and time consuming. Smaller sample than mailing.
Phone Surveys Yes/no survey. Allow for follow up on answers. Response rates are declining. More expensive. May be biased.
Online surveys Popular. Inexpensive, quick response. Higher response rate than written. Can’t reach people without internet, so could be biased.
Confidence interval Margin of error. The response percentage changes in both directions with confidence interval.
Confidence level How sure you can be (95% sure)
Probability Sampling Direct mathematical relation between sample and population, precise conclusion. Non-probability can’t draw precise conclusions
Random sample Everyone has equal chance of being selected
Stratified sample Population is divided into separate groups from which a sample is drawn such that the groups in the population are represented by the groups in the sample
Cluster Sample where a specific target group out of the general population is sampled from.
Non-Probability Sampling No precise connection between the sample and the population.
Convenience sample Individuals that are readily available
Snowball sample One interviewed person suggests other potential interviewees
Volunteer sample Sample of self-selected respondents (ex. yelp)
Nominal Data Classified into mutually exclusive groups or categories and lack intrinsic order (zoning classification, sex, etc.)
Ordinal Data Ordered categories implying a ranking of the observations. (Letter grades, response scales, etc.)
Interval Data Data that has an ordered relationship where the difference between the scales has a meaningful interpretation. (temperature, etc.)
Ratio data Both absolute and relative differences have a meaning (mileage, etc.)
Quantitative Variables Value is meaningful (intervals, ratio)
Qualitative Variables Value is not meaningful (nominal or ordinal)
Continuous Variables Infinite number of variables
Discrete Variables Only a finite number of distinct values (number of events, number of accidents per month, etc.) They cannot be negative
Binary / Dichotomous Variables Discrete values that can only take on 2 values (0 or 1)
Descriptive Statistics Describe the characteristics of the distribution of values in a population or sample
Inferential Statistics Use probability theory to determine characteristics of a population based on observations made on a sample from that population.
Distribution The overall shape of all observed data (table, histogram, or density plot)
Normal / Gaussian Distribution The bell curve. Symmetrical. Spread around the mean.
Symmetrical Distribution Equal number of observations are above and below the mean
Asymmetrical Distribution Where more observations are above or below the mean (skewed to the left or to the right) Happens when dominated by outliers
Variance and Standard Deviation Show how values are spread around the central tendency (in normal distributions, 95% of the distribution is within 2 standard deviations of the mean) Observations that lie outside of that range are outliers.
Coefficient of variation Measures the relative dispersion from the mean
Z Score Transforms the original measure into standard deviation units
Hypothesis test A statement about a particular characteristic of a population.
Null Hypothesis Point of reference
Alternative Hypothesis Research hypothesis one wants to find support for by rejecting the null
Sampling error Provides the connection between the sample and population
Confidence Interval Depends on range of sampling error
T-Test Typically used to compare the means of 2 populations based on their sample averages
ANOVA / Analysis of Variance Tests the equality of means between 2 groups (treatment and control group)
Chi Squared test Measure of fit tests the null hypothesis
Correlation coefficient Measures the strength of a linear relationship between two variables
Linear regression Hypothesizes a linear relationship between a dependent variable and more explanatory variables.
Linear Method The linear method uses the change in population (increase or decline) over a period of time and extrapolates this change to the future, in a linear fashion.
Exponential and Modified Exponential Method Uses the rate of growth or decline (the % change in population over a period of time) to estimate the current or future population. This results in a curved line.
Symptomatic Method Uses any available data indirectly related to the population size (such as drivers licenses). It then estimates the population using a ratio point (such as decennial census). The ratio is used to project the current or future population.
Distributed Housing Unit Method Uses the US Census Bureau for the number of housing units, which is then multiplied by the occupancy rate and persons per household.
Cohort Survival Method Uses the current population plus natural increase (birth, death) and net migration (in and out) to calculate a future population. More accurate Bar graph.
Economic base analysis Basic are activities that can be exported, while non-basic are those that are locally oriented. A location quotient less than one is an importing economy and greater than one is an exporting economy.
Shift-Share Analysis Analyzes a local economy in comparison with a larger economy. It looks at differential shift, proportional shift, and economic growth. It uses employment information by sector for two points in time.
Input-Output Analysis Links suppliers and purchasers to determine the economic output of a region. It uses the economy’s structure to determine the economy in the future. It identifies primary suppliers, intermediate suppliers, intermediate purchasers, and final purchasers.
Urbanized areas An urban nucleus of 50,000 or more people. They may or may not contain individual cities of 50,000. They must have a core with a population density of 1,000 persons per sq mile and may contain adjoining territory with at least 500 persons per sq mile.
Urban Cluster Have at least 2,500 people, but less than 50,000 persons and a population density of 1,000 persons per square mile. In 2000, 11% of the US population lived in 3,158 urban clusters.
Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) Includes at least one city with 50,000 or more inhabitants, or an urbanized area (of at least 50,000 inhabitants) and a total metropolitan population of at least 100,000.
Micropolitan Statistical Area Has a population of more than 10,000 people and less than 50,000 people. This includes a central county and adjacent counties that have a high degree of social and economic integration as measured by commuting.
Census designated Places (CDP) Is the equivalent of an incorporated place for data purposes. This is settled concentrations of population that are not incorporated.
Consolidated MSA (CMSA) Is made up of several MSA’s. An example is the Dallas-Fort Worth Area. Dallas and Fort Worth are each primary metropolitan statistical areas.
Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA) Is defined to provide data description for areas where there is a core area with at least 10,000 people that when combined with other adjacent communities is socially and economically integrated.
Megalopolis In 1961, Jean Gottman published Megalopolis, a book about the area between Boston and D.C. It is a many centered multi-city, urban area of more than 10 million inhabitants, dominated by low density settlement & complex networks of economic specialization.
Megacity The megalopolis areas with more than 10 million people
Census Tract Typically has a population between 2,000 to 8,000 people. It is the smallest area where all information is released.
Census Block The smallest level at which the census data is collected. There are typically 400 housing units per block.
Census Block Group A group of census blocks
Minor Civil Division (MCD) A unit only used in 29 states and usually corresponds to a municipality. Census County Divisions are used in the 21 states that do not have MCDs.
Tribal Designated Statistical Area A unit drawn by tribes that do not have a recognized area of land.
Threshold Population A term that is under a number of government programs to determine program eligibility. Ex. Number to receive CBDG grant.
Public Use Microdata Sample & Public Use Microdata Areas Refer to data available through the American Community Survey.
TIGER Topographically Integrated Geographical Encoding and Referencing map, which is used for census data. Streets, railroads, zip codes, etc.
Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) Show digital data about the elevation of the earth’s surface
Urban Sim A simulation software program that models planning and urban development. Is designed to be used by MPOs.
Community Viz An ESRI software environment that allows agencies to analyze land use scenarios and create 3D images. This allows citizens to visualize the potential for development.
Urban Footprint Developed by Peter Calthorpe. It uses a library of place types, block types, and building types to support interactive scenario building.
Design Charrette A collaboration that brings together citizens, stakeholder, & staff to develop a design plan for a specific area. May be held over 1+. Used for quick consensus. Small groups focus on a design solution for an area. Has a design professional facilitator
The Delphi Method Citizens & stakeholders complete questionnaires. The questions are hypotheses. Then, feedback on the responses is presented anonymously. Participants are encouraged to revise their answers. Over time, the group converges toward a single solution.
Nominal Group Technique Any size that want to come toa decision by vote. Starts with every group member sharing their ideas briefly. Create list of ideas. Duplicate deleted. Rank solutions. Ranks are discussed. Lead to new ideas/combination. Highest ranking solution wins.
Mediation Aneutral 3rd party facilitates discussion to reach satisfactory.Mediator help identifying interests/priorities. The agreementspecifies measurable, achievable and realistic solutions. The final agreement is in writing. Does not involve the court system.
Visual Preference Survey A technique used to assist citizens in evaluating physical images of natural & built environments. Citizens are asked to view &evaluate a wide variety of pictures depicting houses, building styles,etc. Aggregated scores determine resident preferences.
Brainstorming An informal approach to gathering input in the initial stages of a project, or in trying to determine goals. It usually occurs within a small internal group setting, such as planning staff, agency leaders, or commission members.
Visioning Citizens attend a series of meetings to input on how the community future. Focus on wants notexisting conditions. Early in process. Citizens develop a vision statement broken into themes that represent future communities goals. 20-30 year.
The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) Resulted in the creation of the council on environmental quality. The Act requires that the environmental impacts of a project be considered.
Environmental Assessment Is required to determine whether there is a significant environmental impact. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 requires the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement where Necessary
Environmental Impact Statement For federal actions significantly affecting quality of the human environment. If the EA determines there is a significant impact, then an environmental impact statement is required. Includes scoping (hearing concerns from public and affected agencies).
Cost benefit analysis Estimates the total monetary value of the benefits & costs to the community of a project to determine whether they should be undertaken. This is used for public projects such as highways and other public facilities.
Cost effectiveness analysis Selecting among competing projects when resources are limited. Developed by military. = (cost of new strategy – cost of current practice) / (effect of new strategy – effect of current practice)
Net Present Value Shows the net monetary value of a project, discounted to today’s present value. If the calculation results in an interest rate that is greater than the available market interest rate then the project would be financially beneficial.
Goals Achievement Matrix (GAM) A comprehensive way to evaluate a project. It is a table that shows the anticipated attainment of a projects goals and the assignment of accomplishing a goal to a group.
Gantt Chart Focuses on the sequence of tasks necessary for project completion. Each task is represented as a single horizontal bar on an x-y chart. The x-axis is the time scale over which the project will endure. One task cannot begin until another is completed.
Linear Programming Attempts to find the optimum design solution for a project. This system takes a set of decision variables within constraints and comes up with an optimum design solution.
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) A scheduling method that graphically illustrates the interrelationships of project tasks. The US Navy developed this method in the 1950s and now widely used in the defense industry.
Critical Path Method (CPM) A tool to analyze a project. The analysis results in a critical path through the project tasks. Each project task has a known amount of time to complete and cannot be completed before the previous one is completed. The longest path is the critical path
Operating Budget Includes everyday expenditures of an organization, such as supplies, personnel, and maintenance of office space.
Capital Budget Includes long-term purchases, such as a new building, recreation center, water main, or major equipment. A capital budget is a one-year budget for capital expenditures.
Capital Improvements Program (CIP) A longer range (5-7 years) look at the capital needs of a community. A CIP includes project descriptions, estimate costs, construction timelines, and sources of funding.
Line-Item Budgeting Projects budget for next year & adds inflationary costs. Not require evaluation of existing serv & easy to prepare & justify. Lack of flexibility & lack of relationship of budget & objectives of organization. Looks 1 year,lacks focus on programs
Planning, Programming, Budgeting Systems (PPBS) Focused on planning through accomplishing goals set by a department. Helps departments place their programs in perspective &evaluate efforts and accomplishments. Time-consuming and requires that goals and objectives be stated in measurable terms.
Zero-Base Budgeting (ZBB) Emphasizes planning and fosters understanding within all units of an organization. Requires a department to consider every aspect of its operation and concentrate on why it does things the way it does. Time consuming to justify every activity.
Performance-Based Budget Links funding to performance measures. Meeting performance goals increases funds Helps departments develop& evaluate performance standards. Time-consuming to prepare & requires that goal objectives be stated in measurable terms.
Pay as you go Uses current funds to pay for capital improvement projects.
Reserve Funds Ones that you have saved for the purchase of future capital improvements
General Obligation Bonds Voter approved bonds for capital improvements. They use the tax revenue of the government to pay back the debt.
Revenue Bonds Use a fixed source of revenue to pay back the debt. They could be issued to pay for anew water main. The debt would be paid back through the water use fees. Commonly used to finance utility improvements and special facilities, such as baseball stadiums.
Tax Increment Financing (TIF) Allows a designated area to have tax revenue increases used for capital improvements in that area. It is supposed to be an area with disinvestment (blight). The area receives investment which enable reinvestment in the area..
Special Assessments Allows a group of people to assess the cost of a public improvement. Ex. All of the property owners on the street are assessed a fee to pay for the ornamental street lights
Lease Purchases Allows a government to rent to own. The benefit is that the government does not have to borrow money to finance the acquisition of a major capital improvement.
Grants Allows for a portion of the cost of a public facility to be paid for by someone other than the local government. Grants are available from all levels of government, the private sector, and foundations. Typically require a match from local government.
Created by: etreat
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