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Term about the Body

Language of Medicine - Ch 2

ABDOMINAL CAVITY or PERITONEAL CAVITY or ABDOMEN Space in the body below the chest containing organs such as the liver, stomach, gallbladder and intestines
ADIPOSE TISSUE Collection of fat cells
ADIPOSE Pertaining to fat (Lipids)
ANABOLISM cellular process where proteins are built up from simpler substances (amino acids)
ANTERIOR or VENTRAL Front surface of the body
CARTILAGE Flexible connective tissue that is firmer than muscle, yet softer than bone and is often attached to bones at joints; EXAMPLE: forms part of the external ear and the nose, and rings of this also surround the trachea.
CATABOLISM Cellular process of breaking down complex substances into simpler compounds and energy is released.
CELL MEMBRANE Thin and delicate structure surrounding and protecting the cell; it determines what enters and leaves the cell
CERVICAL Pertaining to the neck of the body [Neck region of the vertebrae (C1 to C7) or neck-like lower portion of the uterus]
CHONDROMA Benign tumor of cartilage
CHONDROSARCOMA a malignant tumor of cartilage
CHROMOSOME Rod-shaped structure within the nucleus of a cell; contains genetic material (DNA); there are 46 of these (23 pairs) in every cell except for the egg and sperm cells, which contain only 23 individual ones.
COCCYGEAL Pertaining to the tailbone or coccyx
CRANIAL CAVITY Space in the head containing the brain and surrounded by the skull
CRANIAL pertaining to the skull
CRANIOTOMY Incision of the skull
CYTOPLASM All of the material that is outside the nucleus and yet contained within the cell membrane
DEEP Away from the surface of the body or an organ
DIAPHRAGM Muscular wall separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities; it moves up and down and aids in breathing.
DISK or DISC Pad of cartilage between vertebrae
DISTAL Far from the point of attachment to the trunk or far from the beginning of a structure
DNA Chemical found within each chromosome. Arranged like a sequence of recipes in code, it directs the activities of the cell.
DORSAL or POSTERIOR Pertaining to the back portion of the body
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM Network of canals within the cytoplasm of the cell. Here, large proteins are made from smaller protein pieces.
EPIGASTRIC REGION Middle upper region above the stomach
EPINEPHRINE a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands, located above the kidneys; It is also used as a treatment for severe allergic reactions. It opens airways and increases heart rate in medical emergencies.
EPITHELIAL CELL Cells arranged in layers and cover the outside of the body line the internal surfaces of organs.
FRONTAL PLANE or CORONAL PLANE Vertical plane passing through the body and dividing it into the front and back portions or into anterior and posterior portions
GENES Regions of DNA within each chromosome
HISTOLOGIST Specialist in the study of tissues
HISTOLOGY Study of tissues
HYPOCHONDRIAC REGION Right and left upper regions beneath the ribs
HYPOGASTRIC REGION Middle lower region below the umbilical region
ILIAC Pertaining to the ilium, which is the right or left upper most portion of the hipbone
INFERIOR or CAUDAL below another structure; pertaining to the tail or lower portion of the body, organ or structure
INGUINAL REGION or ILIAC REGION Right and left lower regions near the groin
INTERVERTEBRAL Pertaining to between the vertebrae (backbones); A disk (disc) is located here
INTRAVENOUS [IV] existing or taking place within, or administered into, a vein or veins
KARYOTYPE Classification of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell determined by a photograph taken during cell division; EXAMPLES: page 35 and 36 in book.
LARYNX Voice box; located at the upper part of the trachea.
LATERAL Pertaining to the side
Left lower quadrant [LLQ] contains parts of the small & large intestines, left ovary, left fallopian tube, left ureter; one of the ABDOMINOPELVIC QUADRANTS
Left upper quadrant [LUQ] contains the liver (left lobe), stomach, spleen, part of the pancreas, parts of the small & large intestines; one of the ABDOMINOPELVIC QUADRANTS
LUMBAR [L1 to L5] Loin (waist) region of the vertebrae
LUMBAR REGION Right and left middle regions near the waist
LUMBOSACRAL Pertaining to the lumbar and sacral regions of the back
MEDIAL Pertaining to the middle or near the medial plane of the body
MEDIASTINUM Centrally located space outside of and between the lungs
METABOLISM Total of the chemical processes in a cell; It includes catabolism (breaking down process) and anabolism (building up process).
MITOCHONDRIA Structures in the cytoplasm that provide the principal source of energy (miniature “power plants”) for the cell. Catabolism occurs here.
NUCLEIC Pertaining to the nucleus
NUCLEUS Central, controlling structure in a cell (directs the activities of the cell); contains chromosomes with DNA (genetic material)
PELVIC CAVITY Space below the abdomen containing portions of the intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, and reproductive organs.
PELVIC all the bones that surround the pelvic cavity
PERITONEUM Double-folded Membrane surrounding the organs in the abdomen. It attaches abdominal viscera to muscles and functions as a protective membrane (containing blood vessels and nerves) around the organs.
PHARYNX Throat; serves as the common passageway for food (from the mouth going to the esophagus) and air (from the nose to the trachea).
PITUITARY GLAND Endocrine gland at the base of the brain
PLEURA Double-folded membrane surrounding each lung
PLEURAL CAVITY Space between the layers of the pleura
PRONE Lying on the belly (face down, palms down)
PROXIMAL Near the point of attachment or beginning of an organ
Right lower quadrant [RLQ] contains parts of the small & large intestines, right ovary, right fallopian tube, appendix, right ureter; one of the ABDOMINOPELVIC QUADRANTS
Right upper quadrant [RUQ] contains the liver (right lobe), gallbladder, part of the pancreas, parts of the small & large intestines; one of the ABDOMINOPELVIC QUADRANTS
SACRAL Pertaining to the sacrum
SACRUM [S1 to S5] Large, triangular bone below the lumbar vertebrae at the dorsal part of the pelvis
SAGITTAL PLANE or LATERAL PLANE Lengthwise vertical plane that divides the body or structure into a right and left portion
MIDSAGITTAL PLANE divides the body into equal right and left halves.
SARCOMA Tumor (malignant) of fleshy tissue such as bone, muscle, fat, and cartilage
SPINAL CAVITY or SPINAL CANAL Space within the spinal column (backbones) containing the spinal cord
SPINAL COLUMN Bone tissue surrounding the spinal cavity
SPINAL CORD Nervous tissue within the spinal cavity
SPINAL pertaining to the spine
SUPERFICIAL On the surface of the body or organ
SUPERIOR or CEPHALIC Above another structure; pertaining to the head
SUPINE Lying on the back (face up, palms up)
THORACIC [T1 to T12] Chest region of the vertebrae
THORACIC CAVITY Space in the chest containing the heart, lungs, bronchial tubes, trachea, esophagus, and other organs
THORACOTOMY Incision of the chest
THYROID GLAND Endocrine gland in the neck that surrounds the trachea in the neck
TRACHEA Windpipe; tube leading from the larynx (voice box) to the bronchial tubes
TRACHEAL Pertaining to the trachea
TRANSVERSE PLANE or AXIAL PLANE Horizontal (cross-sectional) plane dividing the body into upper and lower portions
UMBILICAL REGION Central regions near the navel
URETER One of two tubes carrying urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
URETHRA Tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
UTERUS or WOMB Muscular organ in a female that holds and nourishes the developing embryo/fetus during pregnancy
VERTEBRA Single backbone
VERTEBRAL Pertaining to backbones
VISCERA Internal organs
VISCERAL Pertaining to internal organs
Created by: gmackay12



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