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Basic Word Structure

Language of Medicine - Ch 1

ADENITIS Inflammation of a gland
ADENOMA Tumor of a gland
ADENOPATHY Disease of glands
ANEMIA A decrease in erythrocytes or hemoglobin (a chemical) within the red blood cells. This results in decreased delivery of oxygen to cells of the body. These patients look so pale that early physicians thought they were literally “without blood.”
ARTHRALGIA Pain of a joint
ARTHRITIS Inflammation of a joint
AUTOPSY examination of a dead body, to determine the cause of death and nature of disease
BIOLOGY Study of life
BIOPSY Removal of living tissue (specimens) and examination under a microscope
CARCINOGENIC Pertaining to producing cancer – EXAMPLE: Cigarette smoke.
CARCINOMA Cancerous tumor – these grow from the epithelial (surface or skin) cells that cover the outside of the body and line organs, cavities, and tubes within the body
CARDIAC Pertaining to the heart
CARDIOLOGY Study of the heart
CEPHALIC Pertaining to the head
CEREBRAL Pertaining to the brain
CYSTITIS Inflammation of the urinary bladder
CYSTOSCOPY Process of visual examination of the urinary bladder
CYTOLOGY Study of cells
DERMATITIS Inflammation of the skin
DERMATOLOGY Study of skin
DIAGNOSIS State of complete knowledge; information gathered about a patient's illness. This is made after sufficient information has been obtained about the patient's condition
ELECTROCARDIOGRAM [ECG or EKG] Record of the electricity in the heart
ELECTROENCEPLAOGRAM [EEG] Record of the electricity of the brain
ENDOCRINE GLANDS Glands that secrete hormones within the body (directly into the bloodstream) – EXAMPLE: thyroid, pituitary, and adrenal glands, etc.
ENDOCRINOLOGIST One who specializes in endocrine glands
ENDOCRINOLOGY Study of the endocrine glands
ENDOSCOPE Instrument to visually examine within (the body) – EXAMPLE: cystoscope
ENDOSCOPY Process of visually examining within (the body) – performed with an endoscope; EXAMPLE: colonoscopy
ENTERITIS Inflammation of the intestines
ENTEROPATHY Disease of the intestines
EPIDERMIS Outer layer of skin; above the dermis layer
EPIGASTIC Pertaining to above the stomach
ERYTHROCYTE A red blood cell; carry oxygen in the blood.
EXCISION Process of cutting out
EXOCRINE GLANDS Glands that secrete chemicals (e.g., saliva, sweat, tears, milk) through tubes (ducts) to the outside of the body.
GASTRECTOMY Removal of all or, more commonly, part of the stomach
GASTRIC Pertaining to the stomach
GASTROENTEROLOGY Process of study of the stomach and intestines
GASTROTOMY Incision of the stomach
GYNECOLOGIST Specialist in the study of disorders of the female reproductive system
GYNECOLOGY Study of females and female diseases
HEMATOLOGY Study of blood
HEMATOMA Collection (mass) of blood
HEMOGLOBIN Blood protein found in red blood cells; carries oxygen to the cells.
HEPATITIS Inflammation of the liver
HEPATOMA Tumor (malignant) of the liver – EXAMPLE: hepatocellular carcinoma
HYPERGLYCEMIA Condition of increased blood sugar
HYPERTHYROIDISM Condition of too much secretion of hormone (thyroxine) from the thyroid gland
HYPOGASTRIC Pertaining to below the stomach
HYPOGLYCEMIA Condition of decreased blood sugar
IATROGENIC Pertaining to being produced by treatment; EXAMPLE: a rash occurring after treatment with a drug, such as penicillin. – These conditions are adverse effects that result from treatment or intervention by a physician.
INCISION Process of cutting into; scissors cut
LEUKEMIA a condition of blood in which cancerous white blood cells proliferate (increase in number)
LEUKOCYTE White blood cell (helps the body fight disease)
LEUKOCYTOSIS Abnormal condition (slight increase) of normal white blood cells. This condition occurs as white blood cells multiply to fight an infection. Don't confuse this with leukemia
NEPHRECTOMY Removal (resection) of a kidney
NEPHRITIS Inflammation of the kidney
NEPHROLOGY Study of the kidney
NEPHROSIS Abnormal condition of the kidney
NEURAL Pertaining to nerves
NEURALGIA Nerve pain
NEUROLOGIC Pertaining to the study of nerves
NEUROLOGY Study of nerves
ONCOLOGIST Specialist in the study of tumors
ONCOLOGY Study of tumors
OPHTHALMOLOGIST Specialist in the study of diagnosing and treating disorders of the eye
OPHTHALMOSCOPE Instrument used by an ophthalmologist to visually examine the eyes
OSTEITIS Inflammation of bone
OSTEOARTHRITIS Inflammation of bone and joints (actually degeneration of joint tissue)
OSTEOTOMY Incision of a bone
PATHOGENIC Pertaining to producing disease
PATHOLOGIST One who studies diseases, performs autopsies, and examines biopsy samples microscopically to determine the cause of death.
PATHOLOGY Study of disease
PEDIATRIC Pertaining to treatment of children
ORTHOPEDIST once were doctors who straightened children's bones and corrected deformities. Nowadays, they specialize in disorders of bones and muscles in people of all ages.
PERICARDIUM Structure (membrane) surrounding the heart
PROGNOSIS State of before knowledge; a prediction about the outcome of an illness or treatment, but it is always given after the diagnosis has been determined
PROSTATE GLAND Exocrine gland in front of (before) the urinary bladder in males
PSYCHIATRIST Specialist in the treatment of the mind
PSYCHOLOGY Study of the mind
RADIOLOGY Study of x-rays – Low-energy x-rays are used for diagnostic imaging.
RENAL Pertaining to the kidney
RESECTION Process of cutting out; removal
RETROCARDIAC Pertaining to behind the heart
RHINITIS Inflammation of the nose
SARCOMA a cancerous (malignant) tumor of fleshy tissue such as bone, muscle, fat, and cartilage
SUBHEPATIC Pertaining to below the liver
THROMBOCYTE Also known as platelets, these cells help clot blood.
THROMBUS the actual clot that form
THROMBOSIS the condition of clot formation
TRANSHEPATIC Pertaining to through or across the liver
UROLOGIST Specialist in the treatment of the urinary tract
UROLOGY Study of the urinary tract
Created by: gmackay12



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