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The Endocrine Sys

Things to know about the Endocrine System

What are hormones, and what are some effects of hormones? Chemicals that have specific regulatory effects on certain cells or organs in the body. Some of their effects are to regulate growth, metabolism, reproduction, and behavior.
What name is given to specific tissue that responds to a hormone? Target tissue
Hormones belong to what two chemical categories? Amino acid compounds and steroids.
What is the most common mechanism used to regulate hormone secretion? Negative feedback
What part of the brain controls the pituitary? Hypothalamus
What hormones are released from the posterior pituitary? Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin
What hormones does the anterior pituitary secrete? Growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), prolactin (PRL), follicule stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)
What is the effect of thyroid hormones on cells? Increase the metabolic rate in cells.
What mineral is needed to produce thyroid hormones? Iodine
What is the term for an enlarged thyroid gland? Goiter
What mineral do parathyroid hormone (PTH) calcitriol regulate? Calcium
What is the main hormone produced by the adrenal medulla? Epinephrine (adrenaline)
What three categories of hormones are released by the adrenal cortex? Glucocoricoids, mineralocorticoids, and sex hormones.
What effect does cortisol have on blood glucose levels? It raises blood glucose levels.
What two hormones produced by the islets of the pancreas regulate blood glucose levels? Insulin and glucagon
What hormone is low or ineffective in cases of diabetes mellitus? Insulin
Sex hormones confer certain features associated with male and female gender. What are these features called as a group? Secondary sex characteristics
What hormone does the pineal gland secrete? Melatonin
What organs produce each of the following: erythropoietin, osteocalcin, ANP? The kidneys produce erythropoietin. Bone tissue produces osteocalcin. The artria of the heart produce ANP.
What are four hormones released in times of stress? Epinephrine, cortisol, ADH, and growth hormone.
Chemical messengers secreted by the endocrine glands are called hormones
The part of the brain that regulates pituitary gland activity is the hypothalamus
Red blood cell production in the bone marrow is stimulated by the hormone erythropoietin
The main androgen produced by the testes is testosterone
A hormone produced by the heart is atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
A disorder caused by overproduction of growth hormone in the adult. acromegaly
A disorder caused by underproduction of parathyroid hormone. tetany
A disorder caused by overproduction of insulin. hypoglycemia
A disorder caused by overproduction of growth hormone in a child. gigantism
A disorder caused by underproduction of antidiuretic hormone. diabetes insipidus
To what do hormones bind? receptors
Which hormone promotes uterine contractions and milk ejection? oxytocin
Choose the principal hormonal regulator of metabolism. Thyroxine
Which structure secretes epinephrine? adrenal medulla
Which organ regulates sleep-wake cycles? pineal
Created by: Jessica Venyke



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