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CBIC Section 6

Education and Research

Remembering Can the learner recall or remember the information? Define, duplicate, list, memorize, recall, repeat, reproduce state
Understanding Can the learner explain ideas or concepts? Classify, describe, discuss, explain, identify, locate, recognize, report, select, translate, paraphrase
Applying Can the learner use the information in a new way? Choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write
Analyzing Can the learner distinguish between the different parts? Appraise, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test
Evaluating Can the learner justify a stand or decision? Appraise, argue, defend, judge, select, support, value, evaluate
Creating Can the learner create new product or point of view? Assemble, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, write
Learner self-assessment The learner develops a self-achievement model and compares the present situation to the standard
Focus group discussion Learning needs are assessed in small groups with members assisting each other to clarify needs
Interest-finder surveys: These are data-gathering tools, such as checklists or questionnaires
Test development Tests can be used as diagnostic tools to identify areas of learning deficiencies
Personal interviews The educator consults with random or selected individuals to determine learning needs
Job analysis and performance reviews These methods provide specific, precise information about work and performance
Observational studies direct observation of personnel working can be performed by quality management analysts or IPs
Review of internal reports incident reports, occupational injury and illness reports, and performance improvement studies can be reviewed to determine specific learning needs of healthcare providers.
Formative the teacher ask students to pick the best answer from a question; if all the students choose correctly then move on; but if there are discrepancies then initiate a class discussion or review the actual question.
Pre and post test measure change in individual or group understanding of the content
Direct observation of practice noting behavioral changes that are result of the course (e.g., demonstration of proper use of protective barriers)
Exit questionnaires gather information about the overall success of the program, asking for feedback on all aspects of the course, including objectives, presenter, quality of teaching aids, and the learning environment
Exit Questionnaires continued Least expensive and good to collect large samples however they need to be tested before to ensure recipients understand the intention
One-on-one interviews use to collect more in depth information from participants regarding understanding of concepts or preferences of program design.
Which of the following would be an appropriate way to evaluate education provided to a group of employees on hand hygiene? 1. Exit interviews 2. One-on-one interview 3. Direct observation 4. Pretest/post test 3 & 4
Technical challenge when implementing change those that can be solved by the knowledge of the experts; “what”
Adaptive challenge when implementing change requires new learning; "how"
Modifying factors individual characteristics, including demographic, psychosocial, and structural variables, can affect perceptions of health-related behaviors. (Indirectly affect severity, susceptibility, benefits, barriers)
Perceived severity subjective assessment of the severity of the health problem and its potential consequences
Perceived susceptibility subjective assessment of the risk of developing the health problem
Cues to action a cue or trigger is necessary for prompting engagement in health-promoting behaviors. (can be internal (e.g., pain) or external (e.g., others))
Perceived benefits: individuals assessment of the value or efficacy of engaging in a health promoting behavior to decrease risk of disease
Perceived barriers individuals assessment of the obstacles of behavior change The benefits have to out weight the cost or barriers
Self-efficacy: an individuals perception and confidence in their ability to change and to sustain it long term.
Personal determinants knowledge, skills, temperament, motivations; whether the individual has high or low self-efficacy towards the behavior: Done over long term to provide repeated reinforcement
Behavioral determinants persons actual ability to perform a behavior through essential knowledge and skills and the response an individual receives after they perform a behavior
Environmental determinants family traits, sociocultural fx, community influences, resource availability. Peer support, prompts from pts to professionals, role modeling by leaders in the HC environment, compliance incentives, & organizational provisions to facilitate BP behavior
Theoretical components Modeling (Bandura—aggression study), outcome expediencies, self-efficacy, identification
Precontemplation: “I won’t” Not intending to take action it the future; don’t see their behavior as a problem
Contemplation: “I might” beginning to recognize that their behavior is problematic, start looking at pros and cons
Preparation: “I will” intending to take action in the immediate future, may take small steps toward a behavior change
Action: “I am” made specific overt modifications to change behavior
Maintenance: “I have” able to sustain action for at least six months and are working to prevent relapse
Termination: zero temptation and are not willing to return to their old habits.
Quantitative The research question determines the choice of research method. Deductive involves testing theory in which a research hypothesis is either rejected or accepted. Moves from structure (theory or hypothesis) to the event or process (phenonmen)
Qualitative Q's are explored through ID of patterns in narratives, observations, comparisons & contrasts, inferences, application of insight, & use of intuition. Can be exploratory, descriptive, or used for theory verification.
Qualitative continued ppl are not studied independently of environment; rather inf is sought that will reflect present/past situations, & the emphasis is on the whole rather than on a part of an experience. The collection of the data will lead to the generation of a hypothesis
Ethnography: explores the hidden layers of cultures, takes a more holistic approach. typically focuses on details of all aspects available. beliefs, attitudes, social, cultural, and environmental factors
Ground Theory explores the social processes in human interactions focuses on details of one aspect
Focus group provide an opportunity for investigators to explore the beliefs of participants and provide an avenue for previously unrecognized perceptions & concerns to be identified and addressed. smaller group; skilled group leader and moderator; Note taker
Participant observations the collection of data from participants in the participant’s natural setting in a systematic & unobtrusive approach the observer does not initiate or precipitate action on the research topic but waits for the topic or event to emerge. Id key informants
Interviews person-to-person interaction between study participants and an interviewer so that information may be elicited relative to the research. obtains all information. Open-ended questions. Include field notes like body language. Unbiased.
Field notes nonverbal communication and environmental and other contextual factors. records of observations.
Educational Goals: statements that communicate the intent of the curriculum and provide a direction for planning the education session
Educational Objectives: describe each task or behavior the learner will be able to perform after completing the course, as well as the conditions under which each task or behavior will be performed
Instructional objectives describe learner outcomes in measurable terms and use action verbs such as discuss, describe, demonstrate, compare, or evaluate
Selection bias
Standard error
Root cause analysis Process takes a retrospective look at adverse outcomes & determines what happened, why it happened, and what an organization can do to prevent the situation from recurring.
Created by: JRWeidenaar



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