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Chapter 18 The Heart

Anatomy Test 3

QuestionAnswer
The pulmonary circuit does what? takes blood to and from the lungs
The systemic circuit does what? the vessels transport blood to and from body tissues
What does the atria do? receive blood from the pulmonary and systemic circuits
What are the ventricles? the pumping chambers of the heart
What side of the heart is the pulmonary pump? What does the pulmonary pump do? 1. Right side of the heart 2. propels oxygen- poor blood to the lungs
Where is the superior right corner of the heart? 3rd costal cartilage at sternum
Where is the superior left corner of the heart? 2nd costal cartilage lateral to sternum
Where is the inferior right corner of the heart? 6th costal cartilage lateral to the sternum
Where is the inferior left corner of the heart? 5th intercostal space midclavicular line
What is the largest organ in the mediastinum? the heart
What are the structures in the mediastinum? heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and many large blood and lymphatic vessels, all surrounded by loose connective tissue and fat
Where is the heart in the mediastinum? -located between the lungs -lies directly behind the sternum and costal cartilages
What is the pericardium? "around the heart" 3-layer sac
What are the two types of Pericardium? 1. Fibrous pericardium 2. Serous pericardium
What is the fibrous pericardium? -outer layer -strong layer of dense connective tissue -adheres to diaphragm inferiorly and to the great vessels superiorly
How many layers is the serous pericardium formed from? two
What is the serous pericardium? -Parietal layer adheres to fibrous pericardium -Visceral layer adheres to the heart
The pericardial cavity lies between _______ and _______ layers. parietal; visceral
Epicardium is the same thing as what? visceral pericardium
What are the layers of the heart? (in order outside to inside) 1. Fibrous pericardium 2. Parietal layer of serous pericardium 3. Pericardial cavity 4. Parietal layer of serous pericardium
What does endocardium do? lines the heart chambers and makes up the heart valves
What are the two internal divisions of the heart chambers? 1. Atria and Ventricles 2. Interatrial and interventricular septa
Where are the atrias located of heart chambers? atrias are superiorly located
Where are the ventricles located of heart chambers? ventricles are inferiorly located
What are the interatrial and interventricular septa? the walls between the atria and ventricles
Each heart valve is composed of what? endocardium with connective tissue core
Where are the atrioventricular (AV) valves? between atria and ventricles
What is the atrioventricular (AV) valve located between the Right Atrium (RA) and Right Ventricle (RV)? Tricuspid
What is the atrioventricular (AV) valve located between the Left Atrium (LA) and Left Ventricle (LV) Mitral (bicuspid)
Where are the aortic and pulmonary valves (semilunar)? at the junction of ventricles and great arteries
The heart valves ensure what? one-way blood flow
Valves open and close in response to what? differences in blood pressure on each side of the valves
What is the function of the Atrioventricular valves when the ventricles are RELAXED? the valves are forced open by the blood pressure on their atrial side as blood fills atria
What is the function of the Atrioventricular valves when the ventricles are CONTRACTED? they force the contained blood superiorly thus pushing the valves shut
What is function of Semilunar valves during ventricular CONTRACTION? valves are pushed open against artery walls
What is function of Semilunar when valves are RELAXED? backflow blood closes the valves
What is a heartbeat? single sequence of atrial contraction followed by ventricular contraction
How many times does heart beat per minute 70-80 times per minute
What is the contraction of the heart chamber called? Systole
What is the expansion or time when a heart chamber is relaxing and filling with blood Diastole
What are heart sounds made by? turbulence of blood flow created by the closure of the valves
The sound of valves closing is called what? "Lubb-dup"
What does the first sound of valves closing "lubb"mean? The AV valves are closing
What does the second sound of valves closing "dup" mean? the semilunar valves closing
What is called when you listen to the sounds of the body (with a stethoscope)? Auscultation
What surrounds all four valves of the heart? fibrous skeleton
Where does the fibrous skeleton extend into? interventricular septum
What is the fibrous skeleton composed of? dense connective tissue
What are the functions of the Fibrous skeleton of the heart? 1. Point of attachment for cardiac muscle 2. Anchors valve cusps and prevents overdilation of valve openings 3. Blocks direct spread of electrical impulses between atria and ventricles
What controls heart rate and strength of contraction ANS
What three things do the Parasympathetic fibers of the vagus nerve do (CNX)? 1. slow the heart rate 2. decrease the force of the heartbeat 3. constrict coronary vessels
What three things do the Sympathetic fibers do? 1. increase the heart rate 2. increase the force of the heartbeat 3. dilates coronary vessels
Created by: vs604