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Ch 9 Study Guide

Things to know about the Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves

What are the two divisions of the nervous system based on structure? The central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
What divisions of the PNS is voluntary and controls skeletal muscles? What division is involuntary and controls smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands? The somatic nervous system is voluntary and controls the skeletal muscle; the autonomic (visceral) nervous system is involuntary and controls involuntary muscles (cardiac and smooth muscle) and glands.
What is the name of the neuron fiber that carries impulses toward the cell body? What is the name of the fiber that carries impulses away from the body? A dentrite is a neuron fiber that carries impulses toward the cell body; an axon is a neuron fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body.
What color describes myelinated fibers? What color describes the nervous system's unmyelinated tissue? Myelinated fibers are white; unmyelinated tissue is gray.
What name is given to nerves that convey impulses toward the CNS? What name is given to nerves that transport away from the CNS? Sensory (afferent) nerves convey impulses toward the CNS; motor (efferent) nerves convey impulses away from the CNS.
What is a nerve? What is a tract? A nerve is a bundle of neuron fibers in the peripheral nervous system; a tract is a bundle of neuron fibers in the CNS.
What is the name of the nervous system's nonconducting cells, which protect, nourish and support the neurons? Neuroglia (glial cells)
What are the two stages of an action potential, and what happens during each? The rising phase or depolarization, when the charge on the membrane reverses, and the falling phase or repolarization , when the charge returns to the resting state.
What ions are involved in generating an action potential? Sodium and Potassium
How does the myelin sheath affect conduction along an axon? It speeds conduction along an axon.
What is the junction between two neurons called? Synapse
As a group, what are all the chemicals that carry information across the synaptic cleft called? Neurotransmitters
How are the gray and white matter arranged in the spinal cord? Gray matter forms an H-shaped section in the center of the cord and extends in two pairs of columns called the dorsal and ventral horns. The white matter is located around the gray matter.
What is the purpose of the tracts in the spinal cord's white matter? Tracts in the white matter of the spinal cord carry impulses to and from the brain. Ascending tracts conduct toward the brain; descending tracts conduct away from the brain.
How many pairs of spinal nerves are there? 31
What types of fibers are in a spinal nerve's dorsal root? What types are in its ventral root? the dorsal root contains sensory fibers; the ventral root contains motor fibers.
What is the term for a network of spinal nerves? Plexus
What is the name for a pathway through the nervous system from a stimulus to an effector? A reflex arc
How many neurons are there in motor pathway of the ANS? 2
Which division of the ANS stimulates a stress response? Which division reverses the stress response? The sympathetic system stimulates a stress response; the parasympathetic system reverses a stress response.
What is removed in a lumbar puncture? Cerebrospinal fluid
What is the meaning of the word plegia? Paralysis
What term is used for any disorder of the nerves? Neuropathy
The brain and spinal cord make up the CNS
The ion that enters a cell to cause depolarization is sodium
The term that describes conduction along a myelinated axon is saltatory
In the spinal cord, sensory information travels in ascending tracts.
The common term for herpes zoster is shingles
Cells that carry impulses from the CNS motor neurons
Cells that carry impulses to the CNS sensory neurons
Cells that carry impulses within the CNS interneurons
Cells that detect a stimulus receptors
Cells that carry out a response to a stimulus effectors
Which system directly innervates skeletal muscles? somatic nervous system
What cells are involved in most nervous system tumors? neuroglia
Where do afferent nerve fibers enter the spinal cord? dorsal horn
What system promotes the "fight or flight" response? sympathetic nervous system
Created by: Jessica Venyke



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