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Integumentary System

Layers, Functions, and Pigmentation

Stratum Corneum "Horny Layer"; Overcoat of body; Top layer of epidermis; Keratin and glycolipids; Protection against abrasions, penetrations, and water loss; 20-30 shingle, like dead cells thick
Stratum Lucidum "Clear Layer"; Second layer of epidermis; Clear, flat, dead cells; Added thickness on palms of hands and soles of feet
Stratum Granulosum "Granular Layer"; Third layer of epidermis; Cells become flatter, full of keratin; Water resistant (glycolipids fill spaces)
Stratum Spinosum "Prickly Layer"; Fourth layer of epidermis; Thick bundles of pre-keratin; Abundant melanin granules
Stratum Basale "Base Layer"; Fifth layer of epidermis; Single row of stem cells; Receive nutrients from dermis; Rapid cell division
Epidermis Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium; Full of keratinocytes and melanocytes
Keratinocytes Produce the fibrous protein keratin; Growth starts in deepest layer and is pushed upward til dead at the top
Melanocytes Produce pigment-giving melanin
Dermis Strong, flexible tissue with a semi-fluid matrix of fibers (collagen elastic); Made of fibroblast, macrophage, mast, and white blood cells; Contains nerve fibers, blood vessels, lymph vessels, hair follicles, oil glands, and sweat glands
Papillary Layer Upper part of dermis; Peg-like projections; Contains capillary loops, free nerve endings, and touch receptors; Forms ridges that increase friction to enhance gripping and also construct fingerprints
Reticular Layer Deepest skin layer; Lower part of dermis; Dense, fibrous connective tissue; Contains blood vessels, sweat and oil glands, pressure receptors, and WBCs; Collagen fibers in bundles form cleavage lines
Meissner's Corpuscles Touch receptors in papillary layer
Pacinian Corpuscles Pressure receptors in reticular layer
Hypodermis Subcutaneous fascia; Adipose tissue underneath skin; Anchors skin to muscle below
Collagen Fiber Give skin strength; Binds water to hydrate skin
Elastic Fiber Stretch-recoil properties of skin
Blood Vessel in Dermis Maintains body temperature; To cool, they swell with heated blood so skin becomes heated and radiates heat; To heat, the blood bypasses them to go straight to the skin
Melanin Could be brown-black or pink-red; Made by melanocytes; Only found in stratum basale; Protects DNA from UV radiation
Carotene Yellow-orange; Accumulates in stratum corneum and hypodermis; Converts to vitamin A in body
Hemoglobin Pinkish hue from red blood cells in capillaries (hb)
Bronzing Addison's disease, pituitary gland tumors
Eccrine Sweat Glands Releases sweat that is 99% water, salts, vitamin C, antibodies, and wastes; Abundant in palms, soles of feet, and forehead' Evaporative cooling
Apocrine Sweat Glands Sweat and fatty substances and proteins make this sweat look milky and yellowish; Combines with bacteria to make body odor; Activated at puberty and is possibly the sexual scent gland
Sebaceous Glands Secrete oil (sebum) into hair follicle; Waterproofing the skin; Kills bacteria
Arrector Pili Attached to root of hair to pull it upright (creates goose bumps)
Nail Grows from nail matrix; Visible part is called the body; Contains hard keratin
Cuticle Part of nail that covers the nail's root
Created by: Allofakind



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