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Muscle terms

Vocab from Chapter 8 on the Muscular System

Muscle tone is the continuous and passive partial contraction of the muscles,
Endomysium surrounds the individual fibers within fascicles
Perimysium around each fascicle
Epimysium around the entire muscle
Tendon a band of dense regular connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone
Motor unit a single neuron and all the muscle fibers it stimulates.
Membrane potential when the plasma membrane of a living cell carries a difference in electric charge (voltage) on either side.
Excitability receive and respond to stimuli
Action potential the change in electrical potential associated with the passage of an impulse along the membrane of a muscle cell or nerve cell.
Neuromuscular junction the point at which a nerve fiber contracts a muscle cell
Synapse a point of communication between a neuron and another cell
Acetylcholine a compound which occurs throughout the nervous system, in which it functions as a neurotransmitter.
Synaptic cleft the space between neurons at a nerve synapse across which a nerve impulse is transmitted by a neurotransmitter.
Motor end plate the muscle cell's receiving membrane
Contractility shorten when stimulated
Myosin thick, dark protein involved in muscle contraction.
Actin thin, light protein involved in muscle contraction.
Sarcomere a contracting subunit of skeletal muscle
Troponin are a group of proteins found in skeletal and heart (cardiac) muscle fibers that regulate muscular
Tropomyosin a protein involved in muscle contraction. It is related to myosin and occurs together with troponin in the thin filaments of muscle tissue.
Sacroplasmic reticulum is a membrane-bound structure found within muscle cells that stores calcium ions.
Myoglobin stores oxygen in muscle cells.
Glycogen the storage form of glucose.
Creatine phosphate a compound similar to ATP in that it has a high-energy bond that breaks down to release energy.
Anaerobic glycolysis process that breaks glucose down incompletely without using oxygen
Isotonic contraction the tone or tension within the muscle remains the same, but muscle length changes
Isometric contraction there is no change in muscle length, but there is a great increase in muscle tension
Concentric contraction a muscle as a whole shortens to produce movement.
Eccentric contraction the muscle lengthens as it exerts force
Aponeurosis a broad sheet that attaches muscles to bone or to other muscle
Origin where the muscle originates
Insertion muscle attachment connected to a movable part.
Agonist any muscle that performs a given action
Antagonist the muscle that produces an opposite action
Synergist muscles that steady body parts or assist in an action
Orbicularis oculi encircles eyelid; closes the eye
Levator palpebrae superioris Posterior orbit to upper eyelid; opens eye
Orbicularis oris encircles the mouth; closes lips
Buccinator fleshy part of cheek, flattens cheek; helps in eating
Temporalis above and near ear; closes jaw
Masseter At angle of jaw; closes jaw
Sternocleidomastoid along lateral neck, to mastoid process; flexes head toward opposite side
Trapezius Posterior neck and upper back to clavicle and scapula; raises shoulder and pulls it back
Latissimus dorsi middle and lower back, to humerus; extends and adducts arm (prime mover)
Pectoralis major superior, anterior chest, to humerus; flexes and adducts arm; medially rotates arm across chest
Deltoid covers shoulder joint to lateral humerus; abducts arm
Biceps brachii anterior arm along humerus, to radius; supinates the forearm and hand
Triceps brachii Posterior arm, to ulna; extends forearm to straighten upper extremity
Brachioradialis lateral forearm from distal end of humerus to distal end of radius; synergist in forearm flexion
Flexor/extensor carpi Posterior forearm, to hand; extends hand
Flexor/extensor digitorum Posterior forearm, to fingers; extends fingers
Diaphragm Dome-shaped partition between thoracic and abdominal cavities; descends to enlarge thoracic cavity from the top to the bottom during ventilation
Intercostals between ribs; alter thoracic cavity volume during ventilation
Rectus abdominis is a paired muscle running vertically on each side of the anterior wall of the human abdomen
External oblique is one of the outermost abdominal muscles, extending from the lower half of the ribs around and down to the pelvis. ... These muscles help pull the chest, as a whole, downwards, which compresses the abdominal cavity
Internal oblique is an abdominal muscle located beneath the external abdominal oblique. The contraction of this muscle also rotates the trunk and bends it sideways by pulling the midline and rib cage toward the lower back and hip.
Transverse abdominis is the deepest innermost layer of all abdominal muscles and is located underneath your rectus abdominis (the six-pack stomach muscle).
Levator ani pelvic floor; aids in defecation
Sacrospinalis a muscle that extends the length of the back and neck, that arises from the iliac crest, the sacrum, and the lumbar and two lower thoracic vertebrae,
Gluteus maximus superficial buttock, to femur; extends thigh
Gluteus medius deep buttock, to femur; abducts thigh
Iliopsoas crosses anterior hip joint, to femur; flexes thigh when trunk is immobilized; flexes trunk when thighs are immobilized
Adductor longus medial thigh, to femur; adducts thigh
Sartorius crosses anterior thigh; from ilium to medial tibia; flexes thigh and leg (sit cross-legged)
Quadriceps femoris anterior thigh, to tibia; extends leg
Hamstring group Posterior thigh; ischium and femur to tibia and fibula; flexes leg at knee; extends and rotates thigh at hip
Gastrocnemius Posterior leg, to calcaneus, inserting by the Achilles tendon; plantar flexes foot
Tibialis anterior anterior and lateral leg, to foot; dorisflexes foot at ankle; inverts foot (sole inward)
Fibularis (peroneus) longus lateral leg, to foot; everts foot (sole outward)
Soleus posterior leg deep to gastrocnemius; plantar flexes foot
Flexor/extensor digitorum posterior to leg and foot to inferior surface of phalanges; flexes toes
Serratus anterior inferior to axilla on lateral chest, to scapula; moves shoulder foward
Created by: Jessica Venyke



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