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Exam 2/Chapters 6-9

The process of intramembranous ossification generates bone within a pre-existing template composed of mesenchymal tissue. In contrast, endochondral ossification generates bone within a pre-existing template composed of _____. hyaline cartilage
Most of the bones of the skull are formed by this process. intramembranous ossification
An elderly woman trips/falls. She puts out her hand to try to stop her fall, ends up w/fracture of the lower arm. X-ray shows that at the break, many pieces of bone have a splintered and fragmented appearance. Which type of fracture does this woman have? comminuted fracture
In terms of bone health, why would a physician advise an older patient to do more weight-bearing activity such as walking, jogging, or use of moderate weights? -it promotes normal bone remodeling -osteoblasts dep more min salts/ collagen fibers as a resp to mechanical stress -being sedentary promotes bone loss thru resorp by osteoclasts -bone formation in stressed bones is stimulated by the tug of muscles
With aging, bones can become more brittle. This brittleness is due to which factor? with aging, there is a reduction in collagen synthesis by osteoblasts, which means a loss of tensile strength
Bone can be classified as a connective tissue because it contains an extracellular matrix that surrounds widely spaced cells. T/F TRUE
During a needle biopsy of a person's bone marrow, maybe to test for the presence of cancer, pain is felt when the needle passes through the periosteum because it is richly supplied with nerves. T/F TRUE
The skeletal system can produce blood cells and store triglycerides. T/F TRUE
Which is not a function of the skeletal system? carbohydrate storage
The shaft of a long bone is called the diaphysis and the end of a long bone nearest the point of attachment to the trunk is called the proximal epiphysis. T/F TRUE
Which is not a function of calcium in the body? epithelium function
As the spinal cord exits the cranium, it passes through a large opening in the occipital bone called the __________. foramen magnum
Which of the following is not a hole or other kind of opening through a bone? fossa
Which list contains only facial bones? lacrimal bones, zygomatic bones, mandible, palatine bones
Which of the bones below is not part of a pair of bones? nasal ***sphenoid parietal zygomatic temporal
Which bone includes an opening for the ear canal (the external auditory meatus) and articulates with the mandible? temporal bone
Which cranial or facial bone has the cribriform plate, a porous structure through which the olfactory nerves pass into the nasal cavity? ethmoid bone
Which of the following statements is not correct about the hyoid bone? it articulates with the temporal bone
Look at the below image. Which of these normal curves of the vertebral column is developed as the infant learns to stand and walk? lumbar
Which statement about the vertebral column is correct? -an adult has fewer vertebrae (26) than a child (33) - thoracic and sacral curves are primary curves (at birth) - lumbar and cervical curves are secondary curves-after birth - the sacrum and coccyx are made of individual vertebrae that later fuse
Which list shows the correct structural elements of the thoracic cage? ribs, sternum, costal cartilages, thoracic vertebrae
The position of an epicondyle in relation to the condyle is that the epicondyle would be inferior to the condyle. T/F FALSE
The hyoid bone does not directly articulate with any other bones. T/F TRUE
Stenosis of the vertebral column occurs when bony growths (osteophytes) cause a narrowing of the vertebral canal, resulting in pressure and pain on spinal nerves, and a possible decrease in function of the muscles and lower limbs. T/F TRUE
Bones that are generally thin and composed of two nearly parallel plates of compact bone tissue enclosing a layer of spongy bone tissue are flat bones
Ribs that are not attached to the sternum at their anterior costal cartilages are known as floating (vertebral) ribs
The bone surface marking that allows for passage of blood vessels and nerves is a fissure
Which lacks a paranasal sinus? mandible
The pituitary gland is located in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. T/F TRUE
Which is not part of the axial skeleton? clavicle
Which of the following is part of the temporomandibular joint? articular tubercle of temporal bone
Which of the following is the structure on the mandible where the temporalis muscle attaches? coronoid process
The tubercle of a rib articulates with which part of a thoracic vertebra? transverse process
The clavicle articulates with which of the following structures to form the sternoclavicular joint? manubrium
Which of the following bones articulate at the glenohumeral joint? scapula and humerus
Which of the following is the correct sequence of bones of the upper limb, from proximal to distal ends? humerus, radius and ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges
The longest and largest bone of the upper limb is the __________. humerus
Which of the following bones is the largest of the three bones that make up the hip bone? ilium
In the pelvic girdle, the two hip bones unite posteriorly with the sacrum to form the __________ joint. sacroiliac
Which bones form the acetabulum? 1 ilium 2 ischium 3 pubis 1,2,3
The obturator foramen is the largest foramen in the body, but is nearly completely closed by the obturator membrane (but nerves and blood vessels are still able to pass through). This foramen is formed by which structures of the pelvic girdle? the ischium and pubis
The sup + inf reg of bony pelvis are sep by a series of landmarks that ind a boundary known as pelvic brim. These landmarks are the sacral promontory, the __________ of each ilium, + along the superior edges of each pubic bone, + the pubic symphysis. arcuate lines
Which of the following is not a true statement regarding the male and female pelves? The female pelvic inlet is heart-shaped and smaller than that of the male, which is larger and more oval.
Given a case to work in the lab. Given 2 dif bony pelves to examine. 1 is fem + 1 is male. Group notices 1 of the pelves has wide greater sciatic notch (near 90),+ the angle of the pubic arch is > than 90°. What does your group conclude about this pelvis? it is a female pelvis
Which of the following is the correct sequence of bones of the lower limb, from proximal to distal ends? femur, patella (kneecap), tibia and fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
The fovea captitis is a feature of which bone of the lower limb? femur
Which bony landmark can be felt and seen, and is commonly used to help determine where to give an intramuscular injection on the lateral surface of the thigh? the greater trochanter
Most people can see and feel the bony prominences on the medial and lateral sides of the ankles. What bone features and bones form these two prominences? the medial malleolus of the tibia, and the lateral malleolus of the fibula
While the transverse arch of the foot involves several tarsals and the bases of the metacarpals, which statement is correct about the longitudinal arch? both the medial and lateral parts of the arch begin at the calcaneus
By what week of development does endochondral ossification of the bones of the limbs begin? by the end of the 8th week
Somites are cube-shaped masses of mesoderm that give rise to the limb buds of the embryo. T/F FALSE
Which of the following statements about the ischium is true? The ischium is the posterior inferior portion of the hip bone and is composed of a superior body and an inferior ramus.
The largest of the tarsal bones is the: calcaneus
The portion of the pelvis below the pelvic brim is the true (lesser) pelvis. T/F TRUE
Which coxal bone contains the anterior and posterior gluteal lines? ilium
The clavicle is one of the most frequently fractured bones because the junction of the two curves is weak. Which of the following is not a cause of a fractured clavicle? a blow to the inferior part of the anterior thorax
Because it is an immovable joint, the sagittal suture, which joins the two parietal bones of the skull, is classified as a _______. synarthrosis
Most of the freely movable joints of the body could be classified both structurally and functionally as __________. synovial and diarthroses
A gomphosis is which type of joint? fibrous and a syndesmosis
The bodies of adjacent vertebrae are connected by pads of fibrocartilage (the intervertebral discs). The articulations between adjacent vertebrae are called __________. symphyses
Some synovial joints contain special crescent-shaped pads that provide additional shock absorption, and provide for a better fit between the articulating surfaces of the bones. These special pads are called __________. menisci
Which of the following is not a function of synovial fluid? to maintain a sterile environment within the joint cavity
A body builder is doing biceps curls, a type of arm exercise, with hand weights. In a biceps curl, the body builder bends his or her forearm bringing the weight closer to his or her shoulder. What type of movement is this? flexion
Which of the following is a type of angular movement? flexion extension abduction adduction
A child has learned how to draw circles in the air by moving the distal end of the index (pointing) finger while holding the rest of his hand still. What type of movement is this? circumduction
Which of the following is an example of a uniaxial joint? the hinge joint of the elbow
Which type of joint confers the greatest range of motion? ball-and-socket joint
Which of the following could contribute to a decreased range of motion if a person wore a cast for several weeks which prohibited movement at a particular joint, such as the elbow? -a decrease in synovial fluid thus reducing the lubrication of the joint -muscle atrophy thus resulting in weakness in the muscles that would move and stabilize the joint -reduced flexibility of the tendons and ligaments at the joint
Which of the following contributes the most to holding the head of the humerus in the glenoid cavity in the shoulder joint? the muscles of the rotator cuff
While the bones of this joint may fracture, they rarely become dislocated. The articular capsule and accessory ligaments of this joint make it one of the strongest structures in the body. hip joint
This joint is the largest and most complex of the body, and consists of three joints contained within its synovial cavity. knee joint
When walking down stairs or a steep hill, the knee is flexed. Which structure prevents the tibia from sliding too far posteriorly, and the femur from sliding too far anteriorly? the posterior cruciate ligament
Which of the following would not be a common occurrence at joints due to aging? ligaments become stretched and lengthen
By age 20, nearly everyone has some evidence of osteoarthritis in their joints. T/F FALSE
The joints most commonly replaced by arthroplasty are the intervertebral joints, the elbow joint, and the knee joint. T/F FALSE
A fibrous joint in which there is a greater distance between the articulating surfaces and more dense irregular connective tissue than in a suture is called a syndesmosis.
Shoulder and hip joints are examples of which type of synovial joint? ball-and-socket joint
In a pivot joint, the rounded or pointed surface of one bone articulates with a ring formed partly by another bone and partly by a ligament. T/F TRUE
Which factors help to keep the articular surfaces in contact and affect the range of motion? structure or shape of articular bones strength and tension (tautness) of the joint ligaments arrangement and tension of the muscles contact of soft parts
Which muscle originates on the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and inserts on the olecranon process and superior portion of the ulna? anconeus
The prime mover of hip flexion is the __________. iliopsoas
The __________ is an intracapsular ligament which crosses the interior of the joint. anterior cruciate ligament
Which muscle originates on the occipital bone and spines of C7-T12 and inserts on the clavicle and acromion of the scapula? trapezius
The difference between a sprain and a strain is that a sprain involves overstretching ligaments while a strain is overstretching muscles
Created by: vtlove116



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