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Human Muscles

20 required muscle names and actions

QuestionAnswer
orbicularis oculi Closure of eyelids
orbicularis oris Closes and protudes lips; compresses lips against teeth
temporalis Elevates and retracts mandible, assists in side to side movement of mandible.
masseter Elevates mandible and slightly protracts it.
sternocleidomastoid Contraction of one side--bends neck laterally and rotates head to opposite side.
diaphragm Flattens on contraction increasing the vertical dimensions of thorax
rectus abdominis Compresses the abdominal cavity and flexes the verebral column
external oblique Compresses the abdominal cavity. Laterally flexes and rotates vertebral column. Both sides flex verebral column anteriorly.
internal oblique Compresses abdominal contents, laterally bends and rotates verebral column. It also aids the rectus abdominis in flexing verebral column.
pectoralis major Adducts and medially rotates arm, clavicular head flexes humerus, sternal head extends humerus, and with insertion fixed it assists in elevation of the thorax.
pectoralis minor With ribs flexed, it draws the scapula forward and downward, and with scapula fixed, it draws the rib cage superiorly.
serratus anterior Abducts and protracts the scapula, rotates it so that the glenoid cavity faces cranially. It also holds the scapula firmly against the thorax.
trapezius Stabilizes, raises, retracts and rotates the scapula. The superior fibers elevate, the middle fibers retract, and the inferior fibers depress the scapula. Together the upper and lower fibers rotate the arm.
latissimus dorsi Extends, adducts and medially rotates the arm; draws the shoulder downward and backward.
deltoid Anterior portion--flexion and medial rotation of the arm. Middle portion--abducts the arm. Posterior portion--extends and laterally rotates the arm.
subscapularis Medially rotates and stablilizes the head of the humerus in the glenoid cavity.
supraspinatus Abducts the arm and acts to stabilize the humeral head in the glenoid cavity during movements of the shoulder joint. One of four "rotator cuff" muscles.
infraspinatus Lateral rotation of the shoulder and acts to stabilize the humeral head in the glenoid cavity. It is one of the "rotator cuff" muscles.
biceps brachii Flexes and supinates the forearm.
triceps brachii Extends the forearm and the tendon of the long head helps stabilize the shoulder joint.
flexor digitorum superficialis (in antebrachium) Flexes the wrist and the middle phalanges of fingers two through five.
quadratus femoris Laterally rotates the thigh at the hip joint.
glueteus maximus Upper part--extends and laterally rotates thigh. Lower part--extends, laterally rotates thigh and assists in raising the trunk from a flexed position. Also assists in adduction of the hip joint.
gluteus medius Abducts the hip joint and medially rotates the thigh.
gluteus minimus Abducts the fermur at the hip joint and medially rotates the thigh.
tensor fascia latae Assists in abduction, medial rotation, and flexion of thigh. Makes the iliotibial tract taut. Stabilizer of the hip.
sartorius Flexes, laterally rotates, and abducts the hip joint. Also flexes the torso toward the leg, and flexes and assists in medial rotation of the knee.
rectus femoris Extends the leg at the knee and flexes the thigh at the hip joint.
vastus medialis Extends the leg at the knee joint and draws the patella medially.
vastus lateralis Extends the knee joint and exerts a lateral pull on the patella.
vastus intermedius Extends the knee at the joint.
biceps femoris Flexes and laterally rotates the knee joint and extends the thigh.
gracilis Adducts thigh at hip joint and flexes leg at knee joint. Assists in medial rotation.
gastronemius Plantar flexion of the ankle joint and assists in flexion of the knee joint.
soleus Plantar flexion of the ankle and stabilizes the leg over the foot.
flexor digitorum longus (in leg) Flexes distal phalanges of lateral four toes, assists in plantar flexion of foot, inverts foot.
tibialis anterior Dorsiflexion of the foot at the ankle joint and inversion of the foot.
peroneus longus Plantar flexion and eversion of the foot.
Created by: ckrevalin