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Anatomy Ch 5

Tissue crap and whatnot

Epithelial tissue -Protection, secretion, absorption, excretion -Cover body surface, cover and line internal organs, compose glands -Lack blood vessels, cells readily divide, cells are tightly packed
Connective tissue -Bind, support, protect, fill spaces, store fat, produce blood cells -Widely distributed throughout the body -Mostly have good blood supply, cells are farther apart than epithelial cells, with extracellular matrix in between
Muscle tissue -Movement -Attached to bones, in the walls of hollow internal organs, heart -Able to contract in response to specific stimuli
Nervous tissue Conduct impulses for coordination, regulation, integration, and sensory reception
Tight junctions: -Membranes of adjacent cells merge and fuse. -Located among cells that form linings, sheet-like layers. -Blood-brain barrier.
Desmosomes: -Form “spot welds” between cells. -Structural reinforcement. -Located among outer skin cells.
Gap junctions: -Tubular channels between cells. -Molecules can move between cells. -Located in cardiac muscle cells.
Epithelial tissue classification and shapes Classified according to cell shape and cell layers Shapes: squamous, cuboidal, columnar Layers: simple (one layer of cells), stratified (2 or more layer of cells), or pseudostratified (appears layered, but is not).
Simple squamous: -Single layer of thin, flat cells -Substances pass easily through air sacs (alveoli) & capillaries. -Thin & delicate, can be damaged. -Found in diffusion & filtration sites. -Lines air sacs (alveoli) & capillaries. -Lines blood & lymphatic vessels.
Simple cuboidal: -Single layer of cube-shaped cells. -Secretion and absorption. -Lines kidney tubules, thyroid follicles. -Covers ovaries. -Lines ducts of some glands.
Simple columnar: -Single layer of elongated cells. -Nuclei usually at same level, near basement membrane. -Sometimes have cilia. -Sometimes have microvilli. -Sometimes have goblet cells (secrete mucus). -Secretion and absorption. -Lines uterus, stomach, intestines
Pseudostratified columnar: -Single layer, but appears layered. -Nuclei at 2 or more levels. -Cells vary in shape. -Often has cilia, goblet cells. -Protection from infection. -Lines respiratory passageways.
Stratified squamous: -Many cell layers; thick. -Protective layer. -Outermost cells are flat. -Deeper cells are cuboidal. -New cells form, push older cell toward free surface. -Outer layer of skin (keratinized). -Lines oral cavity, vagina, anal canal.
Stratified cuboidal: -2 to 3 layers of cube-shaped cells. -More protection than 1 layer. -Lines ducts of mammary, sweat, & salivary glands, and pancreas.
Stratified columnar: -Top layer of elongated cells. -Cube-shaped cells in deeper layers. -Lines part of male urethra, ducts of exocrine glands.
Transitional (uroepithelium): -Many cell layers. -Cube-shaped and elongated cells. -Changes shape with increased tension; stretches. -Line urinary bladder, ureters, and part of urethra.
Glandular Epithelium Composed of cells that produce and secrete substances into ducts or body fluids
There are 2 types of glands Endocrine glands Exocrine glands
Endocrine glands secrete into tissue fluid or blood.
Exocrine glands secrete into ducts that open onto surface.
2 structural types of exocrine glands: Unicellular Multicellular
Unicellular exocrine gland Composed of one cell, such as a goblet cell (secretes mucus).
Multicellular exocrine gland -Composed of many cells. -Sweat glands, salivary glands, etc. -Simple or compound.
Simple structure Exocrine gland duct does not branch
Compound structure Exocrine gland duct branches before it reaches secretory portion
Tubular structure Exocine gland consist of epithelial-lined tubes
Aveolar structure Exocrine gland terminal portions form sac-like dilations
Merocrine glands: Secrete fluid products by exocytosis; salivary & sweat glands, pancreas
Apocrine glands: Lose small part of cell during secretion; mammary & ceruminous glands
Holocrine glands: Release entire cells filled with product; sebaceous glands
Fibroblasts: -Major cell type of Connective tissue -Most common fixed cell. -Large star-shaped cell. -Secrete fibers into extracellular matrix.
Macrophages (Histiocytes): -Major cell type of Connective tissue -Usually attached to fibers, but can detach and wander -Conduct phagocytosis. -Defend against infection.
Mast Cells: -Major cell type of Connective tissue -Large cells. -Release heparin to prevent blood clotting. -Release histamine, which causes inflammatory response.
Fibroblasts produce 3 types of fibers in connective tissue Collagen fibers Elastic (yellow) fibers Reticular fibers
Collagen Fibers: -Thick threads of collagen, the body’s main structural protein. -Great tensile strength and flexible, slightly elastic. -Found in ligaments and tendons.
Elastic (Yellow) Fibers: -Composed of elastin protein; branching. -Can stretch and return to original shape. -Not as strong as collagen fibers. -Found in vocal cords, respiratory air passages.
Reticular Fibers: -Thin, branching fibers of collagen. -Form delicate, supporting networks. -Found in spleen, liver.
Connective Tissue Proper: Loose connective tissues Dense connective tissues
Dense connective tissues Dense Regular. Dense Irregular. Elastic.
Loose connective tissues: Areolar. Adipose. Reticular.
Specialized connective tissues: Cartilage Bone Blood
Areolar Connective Tissue: -Forms thin, delicate membranes. -Cells are mainly fibroblasts. -Gel-like ground substance. -Collagenous & elastic fibers. -In subcutaneous layer. -Beneath most epithelia, where it nourishes nearby epithelial cells.
Adipose Tissue: -Adipocytes store fat. -Push their nuclei to one side. -Crowd out other cell types. -Cushions and insulates. -Beneath skin (subcutaneous layer). -Behind eyeballs. -Around kidneys and heart. -Spaces between muscles
Reticular Connective Tissue: -Composed of thin reticular fibers. -Supports walls of internal organs. -Walls of liver, spleen.
Dense Regular Connective Tissue: -Closely packed collagenous fibers. -Fine network of elastic fibers. -Most cells are fibroblasts. -Very strong, withstands pulling. -Binds body parts together. -Tendons, ligaments, dermis. -Poor blood supply; slow to heal.
Dense Irregular Connective Tissue: -Randomly organized, thick, interwoven collagenous fibers. -Can withstand tension exerted from different directions. -Dermis of skin. -Around skeletal muscles.
Elastic Connective Tissue: -Abundant yellow elastic fibers. -Some collagenous fibers. -Fibroblasts. -Attachments between bones of spinal column. -Walls of hollow organs, such as large arteries, airways. -Parts of heart. -Elastic quality, stretches.
Cartilage: Rigid specialized connective tissue Support&framework Lack blood supply Matrix contains collagen in gel-like substance Chondrocytes in lacunae surround by matrix Covered by perichondrium which provides some nutrients to cartilage
3 types of cartilage: Hyaline, Elastic, and Fibrocartilage.
Hyaline cartilage: Most common type. Fine collagen fibers. Ends of bones in joints Nose, respiratory passages. Embryonic skeleton.
Elastic cartilage: Flexible, due to elastic fibers in matrix. External ear, larynx.
Fibrocartilage: Very tough, due to many collagenous fibers. Shock absorber. Intervertebral discs. Pads of knee and pelvic girdle.
Bone (Osseous Tissue): Most rigid connective tissue Solid matrix, composed of mineral salts & collagen Supports structures Protects vital structures Produces blood cells Stores & releases C a, P Attachment sites for muscles Forms skeleton Contain osteocytes in lacunae
2 types of bone tissue compact and spongy.
Compact Bone: Osteoblasts deposit matrix in lamellae (layers). Lamellae occur in rings around central canals. Osteocytes + matrix + central canal form cylindrical units called.
Osteons: Osteons are cemented together to form compact bone. Central canals contain blood vessels; bone is well-nourished, heals more quickly than cartilage.
Blood: Cells suspended in fluid matrix called plasma. Red blood cells transport gases. White blood cells defend again infection. Platelets help in blood clotting. Transports substances around body.
Epithelial membranes are composed of epithelial and connective tissue; cover body surfaces and line cavities
3 types of epithelial membranes Serous membranes Mucous membranes Cutaneous membran
Serous membranes: Line body cavities that do not open to outside of body. Inner linings of thorax and abdomen; covers organs. Simple squamous epithelium + areolar connective tissue. Secrete serous fluid for lubrication, reducing friction.
Mucous membranes: Line cavities and tubes that open to the outside of body. Lining of digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts. Epithelium + areolar connective tissue. Goblet cells secrete mucus.
Cutaneous membranes: Covers body surface. Commonly called skin. Part of integumentary system.
Synovial membranes: Different from epithelial membranes. Composed entirely of connective tissue. Line joint cavities.
Skeletal muscle tissue: Attached to bones. Striated. Voluntary. Multinucleated cells. Long cylindrical cells. Stimulated by nerve cells.
Smooth muscle tissue: Non-striated. Spindle-shaped fibers. Walls of hollow organs. Walls of blood vessels. Involuntary.
Cardiac muscle tissue: Only in wall of heart. Branching cells. Involuntary. Striated. Intercalated discs.
Nervous tissues: Found in brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves Main cells are neurons, which are specialized for communication via conduction of nerve impulses Neurons coordinate, integrate,®ulate body functions Neuroglia support&nourish neurons
Created by: Devtemrys



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