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Ch 8 Study Guide

Things to know on the Muscular System

What are the three types of muscle? Smooth, Cardiac, and Skeletal
What are the three main functions of skeletal muscle? movement of the skeleton, maintenance of posture, and generation of heat.
What are bundles of muscle fibers called? Fascicles
What is the term for the difference in electrical charge on the two sides of a plasma membrane? The membrane or transmembrane potential.
What is the name of the special synapse where a nerve cell makes contact with a muscle cell? the neuromuscular junction.
What neurotransmitter is involved in the stimulation of skeletal muscle cells? Acetylcholine (ACh)
What filaments interact to produce muscle contraction? actin and myosin
What mineral is needed for interaction of the contractile filaments? calcium
What compound is formed in oxidation of nutrients that supplies the energy for muscle contraction? ATP
What compound stores reserves of oxygen in muscle cells? Myoglobin
What are the two main types of muscle contraction? isotonic and isometric
What are the names of the two attachment points of a muscle, and how do they function? the origin is the muscle's attachment to a less movable part of the skeleton; the insertion is the attachment to a moveable part of the skeleton. When a muscle contracts, the insertion is brought closer to the origin.
What is the name of the muscle that produces a movement as compared with the muscle that produces an opposite movement? the prime mover produces a movement. the muscle that produces the opposite movement is the antagonist.
Of the three classes of levers, which one represents the action of most muscles? a third-class lever.
What muscle is most important in breathing? the diaphragm.
What structural feature gives strength to the muscles of the abdominal wall? the muscle fibers run in different directions.
Created by: Jessica Venyke