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Anatomy Ch 4

Crap about dna and whatnot

QuestionAnswer
Dna stores instructions on how to produce proteins that functions as... Enzymes blood proteins structural proteins of muscle and connective tissue antibodies cell membrane components
Nucleotides are building blocks of DNA, and consist of... -5 carbon sugar, deoxyribose A phosphate group A nitrogenous base (adenine, cytosine, guanine, or thymine)
Bases from the 2 complementary strands in DNA link together by hydrogen bonds... C-G and A-T
Bases from the 2 complementary strands in RNA link together by hydrogen bonds A-U and C-G
Names of the nitrogenous bases Adenine, Cytosine, guanine, uracil
How DNA forms chromosomes DNA wraps about histone proteins to form chromosomes
Types of nitrogenous bases Purine and Pyrimidine
Purine bases A, G
Pyrimidine C, T
DNA Replication process that produces an exact copy of a DNA molecule
When a template is formed for DNA replication, the strand has these ends... The strand has 5’ and 3' ends and run in opposite direction
This is starting point of replication Primase lays short strand of rnas called primer along the dna template.
DNA polymerase binds with the primer and starts laying dna bases, but only in one direction from 5’ to 3’ end
leading strand A daughter dna that runs 3’ to 5 end
lagging strand A daughter that runs 5' to 3'
In lagging strand, rna primer... is laid and short fragment of dnas is added, again further down towards 3’ end another rna primer is laid then again dna is added each time from 5' to 3' end. (Okazaki Fragments)
Okazaki Fragments short fragments of DNAs added in a daughter dna strand from a 5' to 3' end
. The DNA strand formed on lagging strand has alternate ... rna primer and Okazaki fragments until exonuclease removes the primer
The gap in the dna strand is filled after replication by... DNA polymerase and DNA ligase deals with the fragments
RNA characteristics Single strand of nucleotides Each nucleotide contains: ribose, phosphate base (A G, C U) Complementary base pairing in RNA: A-U, C-G Much shorter than DNA
Transcription Process of copying DNA sequence onto an RNA sequence
Messenger RNA (Mrna): Carries genetic code from DNA to ribosome
Rna Polymerase: Enzyme that catalyzes the formation of Mrna from the proper strand of DNA
Transcription beginning steps: RNA polymerase recognizes correct strand of DNA to copy A section of DNA unwinds to expose the gene coding for the particular protein Complementary Mrna nucleotides pair with the DNA bases Termination signal indicates end of gene
Transcription ending steps: New Mrna strand is released, and DNA rewinds into double helix The Mrna now leaves nucleus through nuclear pore into cytoplasm, where it binds to ribosome
Codons amino acid is specified by a sequence of 3 bases in DNA
Protein synthesis occurs in... cytoplasm
Translation: Process of converting the genetic code, carried by mrna, into a sequence of amino acids that becomes a protein
Start of Translation: Mrna leaves the nucleus and migrates to ribosome Mrna codon at start of a gene is recognized by an initial trna anticodon, and brings the first amino acid into position
During and after Translation: Translation continues as specific Trna molecules bring the correct amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain As ribosome moves along Mrna, more amino acids are added At end of Mrna, the ribosome releases the new polypeptide chain
Initiation of Translation: Initiation ("beginning"): in this stage, the ribosome gets together with the mRNA and the first tRNA so translation can begin.
Elongation of Translation Elongation ("middle"): in this stage, amino acids are brought to the ribosome by tRNAs and linked together to form a chain.
Termination of Translation Termination ("end"): in the last stage, the finished polypeptide is released to go and do its job in the cell.
Protein synthesis requires.. that amino acids are added to growing polypeptide chain in proper sequence
Protein synthesis steps Trna aligns amino acids during protein synthesis, along the mrna strand on the ribosome trna binds to is amino acid, transports it to a ribosome, binds to the mrna according to its sequence, and adds its amino acid to the growing polypeptide chain
There are ___ types of amino acids 20
There are ___ possible codons on mrna 64
The initiation codon,___, codes for ____ and signals the start of a protein AUG; methionine
Mutations occur when... bases are changed, added or deleted
Mutations can be: Spontaneous or Induced
spontaneous: due to insertion of unstable base into DNA sequence
Induced: due to exposure to mutagens, chemicals or radiation that cause mutation
DNA repair: correction of a mismatched nucleotide by a repair enzyme
Nature of genetic code Since often 2-4 codons specify the same amino acid, some mutations would result in production of same amino acid, which would not affect the protein
Having 2 copies of chromosomes if one copy is mutated, the other copy may provide enough of gene’s normal function to maintain health.
Created by: Devtemrys