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skeleton chapter 21

What are other common skeletal system disorders Bunion, Bursitis, Carpel tunnel syndrome, Gout.
Risk factors of osteoporosis.... lack of weight bearing exercise, caucasian females who have never been pregnant and experience early menopause, history of corticosteroid use, smoking, drinking alcohol, diets high in salt, caffeine, or have insufficient intake of calcium or vitamin d.
Arthritis is treated by... pain reduction, surgical puncture, modification of daily activities, rest, low impact exercise.
Osteomalacia is.. softening of the bones.
Osteoporosis is.. decrease in bone mass that results in thinning and weakening of the bone.
Rickets is... deficienty in calcium and vitamin d in early childhood
Osteomyelitis is.... Inflammation of the bone and marrow due to infection.
Spinal stenosis is... narrowing of the spinal canal.
Symptoms of arthritis are.... joint pain, swelling morning stiffness, warmth, redness, decreased ability to move the joing.
Eversion is... turning a body part outward
What is the most common type of arthritis? Osteoarthritis
Dislocation means that a joint is no longer in normal position.
In osteoporosis the bones become... more porous especially in the spine and pelvis.
How is osteoporosis diagnosed by a bone density test
Paget's disease is a...... Metabolic disease.
A ruptured inter-vertebral disk is also known as a.... slipped disk
What consists of a series of vertebrae that are connected in such a way as to form four spinal curves? Vertebral column
Scoliosis usually appears in.... Adolescense in periods of rapid growth
Inflammation of one or more joints is Arthritis
Protraction Moving a body part forward.
Retraction Moving a body part backward.
Extension Straightening a body part
What are the risks of having an open fracture? Infection and hemorrhage
C-1 is also known as atlas
C2 is also known as axis
Appendicular skeleton consits of Upper extrimities, Lower extrimities, pelvic gurdle, and the pectorial girtle.
Male pelvis is shaped like a funnel, narrower than a females, stronger and heavier, more suitable for lifting and running
Female pelvis is shaped like a basin, oval to round, wider and lighter, constructed to accomidate a fetus during pregnancy
Three abnormal curvatures of the spine Scoliosis, Lordosis, Kyphosis
Scoliosis A lateral curvation of the spine {looks like an s}
Lordosis Exaggerated lumbar curvation {also known as swayback}
Kyphosis Normal thoracic curvature becomes exaggerated {also known as humpback}
Rotation moving a body part around a central axis
How much bone mass does a women lose after age 35? 1% per year
When do women stop building bone? Age 35
Closed fracture simple fracture that does not go through the skin
Open fracture compound fracture that does go through the skin. more dangerous
Greenstick fracture one side of the bone breaks: the other side just bends. occurs in young children
spiral fracture produced by twisting stress spreading along the length of a bone
Colle's fracture Usually a break in th distal portion of the radius. Happen in children and the elderly
Pott's fracture occurs in the ankle and affects both the tibula nad the fibula
functions of skeletons bones provides shape and support, protects internal organs, store mineral salt, calcium and phosphoris, plays significant part in blood-cell formation, gives the skeletal muscle somewhere to attach, and helps provide movement
compression fracture occurs in the vertebae after sever stress.
shapes of bones long, short, flat, irregular, sesamoid, sutural
Bones are classified by shape
Medullary canal narrow space or cavity throughout the length of the diaphysis: contains yellow bone marrow.
Endosteum tough connective membrane lining the medullary canal contains bone marrow
Compact bone the dense hard layer of bone tissue
Diaphysis The shaft of a long bone
Epiphysis The ends of a developing bone
Cancellous or spongy bone the membrane that makes up most of the volume of the bone. contains red bone marrow.
Axial skeleton Central part of the skeleton
joint Articulation located where two bones connect.
adduction moving a body part toward midline
abduction moving a body part away from midline
How are joints classified according to the type of movement they provide
circumduction moving a body part in a circular motion
dorsiflexion bending a body part backward
Diarthrotic joints that allow free movement
Synarthrotic Joints that have no movement
Amphiarthrotic Joints that allow very slight movement
supination lying face up or palm/foot up
pronation lying face down or palm down
flexion bending or curving of the spine
axial skeleton includes skull, vertebrae, ribs, sternum, sacrum, and coccyx
appendicular skeleton includes the extremities
transverse frature fracture breaks the shaft of the bone longitudinally
comminuted fracture part of the bone is shattered into a multitude of bony fragments
periosteum membrane that forms the covering of the bone except for the articular surfaces
Four spinal curves cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and coccyx
Inversion moving a body part inward
Rheumatoid arthritis an autoimmune disorder in which the joints may actually become deformed due to the inflammation
Created by: pennylynn78



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