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Chapter 17 Anatomy

Blood Anatomy

blood is a specialized _________ ___________ connective tissue
Functions of Blood 1. Carries oxygen and nutrients to the tissues 2. Carries carbon dioxide and wastes from the tissues 3. Transports hormones to target cells and tissues 4. Maintains Homeostasis by coagulation and Thermoregulation
Blood contains ______ and _______ components cellular and liquid
Blood Cells (Types) 1. Erthrocytes 2. Leukocytes 3. Platelets
Blood Cell Derivatives of Erythrocytes 1. red blood cells (RBCs)
Blood Cell Derivatives of Leukocytes 1. white blood cells (WBCs)
Blood Cell Derivative of Platelets 1. Thrombocytes
Plasma is protein-rich liquid component of blood
Composition of Blood 1. Plasma- 55% 2. Buffy coat- <1% 3. Erythrocytes- 45%
Buffy Coat of Blood is made up of ______ and ______ leukocytes and platelets
Hematocrit is _____ the percentage of erythrocytes in a sample of blood
Hematocrit in Males is ________% 47%
Hematocrit in Females is ________% 42%
Characteristics of Blood Plasma (3) 1. Straw-colored, sticky fluid portion of blood 2. Consists of about 92% water 3. Contains ions, nutrients, wastes, and proteins
The three main proteins that exists in Blood plasma are what? 1. Albumin 2. Globulins 3. Fibrinogen
Albumin is 1. a protein in blood plasma 2. the most abundant 3. maintains blood osmotic pressure
Albumin helps hold Albumin helps hold water in the blood vessels
Globulins are what? 1. proteins in blood plasma 2. antibodies 3. nonimmune globulins
Nonimmune globulins are What? proteins that transport lipids, iron and copper
Fibrinogen are what? 1. protein in blood plasma 2. involved in blood clotting by transforming into fibrin
Erythrocytes are true cells or not true cells and its derivative is _________ not true cells and red blood cells
Leukocytes are true cells or not true cells and its derivative is _______ true cells and white blood cells
Platelets are true cells or not true cells and its derivative is not true cells and thrombocytes
Study method of blood- making a blood smear 1. slides are air dried 2. Cells are fixed and stained a. Eosin (acidic)- pink b. Methylene blue (basic)- 3. Cells are examined with microscope
The most numerous of the formed elements in blood is ________ Erythrocytes- red blood cells
Shape of Erythrocytes is 1. Biconcave which allows 30% more surface area
Erythrocytes have no nuclei or organelles
The Erythrocytes cytoplasm is filled with hemoglobin- 97% of solids
Red blood cells are confined to blood circulatory system
There are no red blood cells where? outside blood vessels
Red blood cells live for how long? 100-120 days
What happens to old erythrocytes? old erythrocytes are phagocytosed in the splin and liver by resident macrophages
White blood cells are _______ than ______ far less numerous than erythrocytes
White blood cells protect the body from infectious microorganisms
White blood cells function where? outside the bloodstream in loose connective tissue
What is Diapedesis? circulating leukocytes leave capillaries by squeezing through endothelium after BEING CHEMICALLY ATTRACTED TO SITES OF INFECTION
Five types of leukocytes divided in two groups based on what? presence of cytoplasmic granules
Five types of leukocytes are divided into what two groups? granulocytes and agranulocytes
What types leukocytes are in granulocyte category? 1. Neutrophils 2. Eosinophils 3. Basophils
What types of leukocytes are in Agranulocyte category? 1. Lymphocytes 2. Monocytes
Acronym for memorizing types of leukocytes Never Eat Bananas Like Monkeys
What are major hematopoietic organs during fetal development? liver and spleen
What is site of active hematopoiesis after birth and throughout life as adult Red bone marrow
What is bone marrow located? in spongy bones
What type of bone marrow actively generates new blood cells? Red Marrow
Yellow Marrow is ______ and filled with ______ inactive, fat
What type of marrow can be re-activated in emergencies? Yellow Marrow
All marrow is _____ at birth red
Where does red marrow remain in adulthood? axial skeleton, girdles, and proximal ends of long bones
Red bone marrow is made of ______ ______ tissue with 1._______, 2._______, 3._______ and 4._______. -reticular connective tissue 1. fibroblasts 2. fat cells 3. blood cells (all types) 4. blood sinusoids-
What are blood sinusoids? specialized wide capillaries
All blood cells originate in where? Red Bone Marrow
All blood cells originate from what cell type? blood stem cell (pluripotential stem cell), which is self-renewing
Disorders of Erythrocytes are what? 1. Polycythemia 2. Anemias 3. Sickle Cell Disease
Disorders of Leukocytes are what? 1. Leukemia
Disorders of Leukocytes are classified as what depending on what? Lymphoblastic or Myeloblastic depending on which cell line is involved
Disorders of Platelets are what? Thrombocypotenia
What is Polycythemia? abnormal excess of erythrocytes in the blood; increases blood viscosity
What is Anemias? decreased oxygen carrying capacity of the blood due to low erythrocyte levels or low hemoglobin concentrations
What is Sickle Cell Disease? -inherited condition -Erythrocytes distort into a sickle shape when patient is deyhdrated or oxygen content of blood is low
What causes sickle cell disease results from a defective hemoglobin molecule
What is Leukemia? -a form of cancer -uncontrolled proliferation of leukocyte-forming cell line in bone marrow
What is Thrombocytopenia? abnormally low concentration of platelets, leads to impairment in blood clotting ability
Created by: vs604