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Life Span Ch. 9-10

Life Span 9-10

QuestionAnswer
What is a Growth spurt? Period during which growth advances at a dramatically rapid rate compared with other periods.
Boys and girls grow approximately how many inches per year? two inches every year
When does a child's weight double? Four- to six-year-olds.
Boys - Similarities and Differences in Physical Growth Slightly heavier and taller than through the age of nine or ten. Develop more muscle
Girls - Similarities and Differences in Physical Growth Have adolescent growth spurt and surpass in height and weight until about 13 or 14. Develop more fat.
7 Causes of Being Overweight Heredity. Consumption of sugary drinks and less healthful food. Advertising of fattening foods. Lack of regular physical activity. Limited access to healthy affordable foods. Lack of breast-feeding . Television and other media.
Gross motor skills Balance, coordination, and strength
Specifics of Gross motor skills Muscles grow stronger. Neural pathways that connect the cerebellum to the cortex are more myelinated. Reaction time: respond to a stimulus. Improves from early childhood to about age 18.
Fine motor skills Performance of basic chores improves by the age of six to seven.
In motor development what do boys have more of? More forearm strength. Aids them in throwing a ball or swinging a bat
In motor development what do girls have more of? Greater limb coordination and overall flexibility. Aids them in dancing, gymnastics, and balancing
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Child shows excessive inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. Impairs the ability to function at school. Causes lack of executive control of the brain over motor and more primitive functions.
Treatment of ADHD Stimulants. Promote the activity of the brain chemicals dopamine and noradrenaline. Stimulate the executive center of the brain to control primitive areas of the brain.
What is a learning disability? Inadequate development of specific academic, language, and speech skills
Dyslexia Reading disorder characterized by letter reversals mirror reading, slow reading, and reduced comprehension.
Treatment for dyslexia focuses on what? Highly structured exercises. Mainstreaming:
What is mainstreaming? Placing disabled children in classrooms with nondisabled children
What are some exercises for dyslexia? Highly structured exercises that help children become aware of how to blend sounds to form words.
How do children progress in terms of their cognitive development during middle childhood? Thought processes and language. Become more logical and complex.
Concrete operations. 3rd stage in Piaget's scheme. Characterized by flexible and reversible thought concerning tangible objects and events. Children are less egocentric and are able to engage in decentration.
What is decentration? Simultaneous focus on more than one aspect of a problem or situation.
At what age do children understand the laws of conservation? Seven
Transitivity If A exceeds B in some property and B exceeds C, then A must also exceed C
Seriation Ability to place objects in a series by age, height, and weight.
How is Seriation assed? Asking children to place ten sticks in order of size.
Concrete-operational - Seriation Two dimensions at once.
Class inclusion Focusing on two subclasses and a larger subclass at the same time.
Define Piaget's theory to education Learning involves active discovery. Instruction should be adapted to the child’s level of development. Learning should consider the perspective of others to develop cognition and morality.
What is moral reasoning related to? The child’s overall cognitive development.
Objective Morality The perception of morality as objective, that is, as existing outside the cognitive functioning of people. Ex. Even if trying to help still get in trouble.
Piaget’s two overlapping stages of children’s moral judgements. Moral realism.
Immanent justice: Retribution for wrongdoing is a direct consequence of the wrongdoing. Ex. Steal something, go to jail.
Autonomous morality: The second stage in Piaget's cognitive-developmental therory. Moral judgments based on intentions of the wrongdoer and the damage.
Moral realism: Judgment of acts as moral when they conform to authority or to the rules of the game.
Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development Emphasized the importance of viewing the moral world from the perspective of another person.
Kohlberg Preconventional level Stage 1: Obedience/Punishment. Judgments are based largely on expectations of rewards or punishments. Ex. Child wants to please parents. Ends Age 10. Stage 2: Own needs/needs of others. Naively egoistic, instrumental orientation
Kohlberg Conventional level Moral Judgements largely reflect social rules and conventions. Stage 3: Good-boy/good-girl orientation. Stage 4: Law-and-order orientation.
Kohlberg Postconventional level Moral Judgements are derived from moral principles, and people look to themselves to set moral standards. Ex. Forming own opinion. Stage 5: Contractual, legalistic orientation. Stage 6: Universal ethical principles orientation.
Elements of Information Processing Development of selective attention, capacity of memory and children’s understanding of the processes of memory. Development of the ability to solve problems.
Development of Selective Attention Ability to focus one’s attention and screen out distractions advances steadily through middle childhood.
Sensory memory/register. First encountered by sensory input. Information is maintained for a fraction of a second
Working memory or short-term memory Holds a sensory stimulus for up to 30 seconds after the trace decays.
Long-term memory Permanent storage of information. Organized according to categories as the knowledge of concepts advances.
Metacognition Awareness and control of one’s cognitive abilities. Meta=Knowledge
Determinant of metacognition? Ability to formulate problems, the processes required to solve a problem and the behavioral strategy. Maintaining focus on the problem and checking answers. Math Problem.
Metamemory Storage and retrieval of information. Strategy to memorize, repetition. Hearing a song cues a memory.
Charles Spearman suggested that the behaviors considered intelligent have a common underlying ______? g factor - Broad reasoning and problem-solving abilities. s factor - Specific capacities.
G factor g, influences the performance on all mental tasks, while another component influences abilities on a particular task.
S factor Specific to a certain aspect of intelligence. This second factor he named s, for specific ability.
Louis Thurstone Intelligence belief. Standardized mean and Standard Deviation of IQ scores used today, as opposed to the Intelligence Test system originally used by Alfred Binet. Developed Thurstone scale.
Sternberg - Triarchic theory of intelligence Analytical intelligence. Creative intelligence . Practical intelligence.
Analytical intelligence in Sternberg Triarchic theory of intelligence Academic ability. Performance.
Creative intelligence in Sternberg - Triarchic theory of intelligence Ability to cope with novel situations and to profit from experience.
Practical intelligence in Sternberg - Triarchic theory of intelligence Adapt to the demands of the environment
What does Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences reflect? This area deals with spatial judgment and the ability to visualize with the mind's eye. Spatial ability is one of the three factors beneath g in the hierarchical model of intelligence.
Measurement of Intellectual Development Binet–Simon scale, IQ (Intelligence Quotient) and Wechsler scales
Binet–Simon scale Yielded a score called a mental age (MA).
Wechsler scales Developed for use with school-age children, younger children, and adults. Suggest children’s strengths and weaknesses and provide overall measures of intellectual functioning.
Cultural bias Condition that scoring well on intelligence test requires a certain type of cultural experience
Culture-free Description of a test in which cultural biases have been removed
Drawbacks of cultural free Middle-class children outperform lower-class children. Tests do not predict academic success.
Intellectual Disability limits what? Adaptive behavior and functioning.
Intellectual Disability IQ limits No more than 70 to 75
Cause of intellectual disabilities? Biological - Chromosomal abnormalities, genetic disorders, and brain damage.
Cultural–familial disability Substandard intellectual performance stemming from lack of opportunity to acquire knowledge and skills.
Giftedness Involves more than excellence on the tasks provided by standard intelligence tests.
Educators’ criteria for intelligence Outstanding abilities. Capable of high performance in a specific academic area. Show creativity, leadership, distinction in the visual or performing arts, or bodily talents.
Socioeconomic and Ethnic Differences in IQ Lower-class American children obtain IQ scores 10 to 15 points lower than those obtained by middle and upper class children.
Differences reflect ethnic attitudes toward Education rather than racial differences.
Creativity Trait characterized by flexibility, ingenuity, and originality
Convergent thinking Thought process that attempts to focus on the single best solution to a problem.
Divergent thinking Free and fluent association to the elements of a problem.
Heritability Degree to which traits and characteristics can be attributed to genetic factors.
How much does a child's word vocabulary expand at age six? Nearly 10,000.
Age seven to nine Semantic sophistication (Language) Subtle advances in articulation while using complex grammar.
Middle childhood Children use connectives and can form indirect object–direct object constructions. Complex grammar.
Three Methods of Teaching Reading Word-recognition method. Phonetic method. Sight vocabulary.
Methods of Teaching Reading. Word-recognition method. Associating visual stimuli with the sound combinations that PRODUCE SPOKEN WORDS.
Methods of Teaching Reading Phonetic method. Learning to associate written letters and letter combinations with the sounds they indicate.
Methods of Teaching Reading Sight vocabulary Recognizing useful words based on familiarity with their overall SHAPES
Bilingualism Contributes to the complexity of a child’s cognitive processes.
Latency Stage Adolenscent - psychoanalytic theory, the fourth stage of psycho sexual development, characterized by repression of sexual impulses and development of skills.
Industry Versus Inferiority A stage of psycho sexual development in Erickson’s theory occurring in middle childhood. Master of tasks leads to a sense of industry, whereas failure produces feelings of inferiority. Not same grade as peer.
Social Cognition Development of children’s understanding of the relationship between the self and others. Awareness of their relationship with others.
Learned Helplessness An acquired (hence, learned) belief that one is unable to control one’s environment.
Corregulation A gradual transferring of control from parent to child, beginning in middle school.
Transgender People who feel as though they are persons of the other sex who are “trapped” in the body of the wrong sex.
Cyberbullying The use of electronic devices such as cellphones, computers, and tablets to transmit threatening and taunting messages.
Pymalion effect A positive self fulfulling prophecy in which an individual comes to display improved performance because of the positive expectation of the people with whom he or she interacts.
Conduct Disorder Marked by persisting breaking of the rules and violations of the rights of others.
Attributional style The way in which one is disposed toward interpreting outcomes, (successes or failures), as in tending to place blame or responsibility on oneself or on external factors.
Serotonin A neurotransmitter that is involved in mood disorders such as depression.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) An anxierty disorder in which anxiety appears to be present continuously and is unrelated to the situation.
Phobia An irrational excessive fear that interferes with one’s functioning.
Seperation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) An extreme form of otherwise normal separation anxiety that is characterized by anxiety about seperating from parents. SAD often takes the form of refusal to go to school.
School Phobia Fear of attending school marked by extreme anxiety at leaving parents.
Social Cognitive Theory Focuses on the importance of rewards and modeling in middle childhood In middle childhood. Children increasingly regulate their own behavior. Are influenced by parents, teachers, other adults, peers, and symbolic models.
According to Piaget, middle childhood coincides with thi s stage? Concrete operations - Cognitive advance affects the child's social relationships
Social cognition Development of children's understanding of the relationship between the self and others
In middle childhood, at age 9, children's self-concepts focuses more on? Physical traits, such as eye color, and in their self-definition.
In middle childhood, at age 11, children's self concept focuses more on? Abstract internal or personality traits. Build their self-esteem by focusing on their talents.
What declines throughout childhood and increases in adolescence? Self Esteem
Mothers’ interactions in Parent Child Relationship Caregiving
Fathers’ interactions in Parent Child Relationship Recreation
What happens when Children Whose Parents Get Divorced? Unable to enjoy or do daily activities, such as eating with both the parents. Most live with their mothers. Less paternal attention affects children's self-esteem level. May have behavior problems.
Continuity of Marriages for the Sake of Children Effects of severe parental bickering are same as when parents are divorced or separated. Some children tend to fare better after the divorce of continually fighting parents.
Childhood Depression Not recognized until the age of seven.
Attributional style Tendency to place blame or responsibility on oneself or on external factors.
Depressed children underutilize Serotonin
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) Anxiety appears to be present continuously and is unrelated to the situation.
Phobia Irrational, excessive fear that interferes with one's functioning
Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) Extreme form of separation anxiety. Characterized by anxiety about separating from parents.
Created by: MSTVT