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APHG Ch 2 Vocabulary

carrying capacity The ability of the land to sustain a certain number of people.
contraception The deliberate use of artificial methods or other techniques to prevent pregnancy as a consequence of sexual intercourse.
J-curve Reflects exponential growth of a country’s population; this typically occurs in ideal environments.
S-curve Traces the cyclical movement upwards and downwards in a graph. So named for its shape. Relates to growth and decline in the natural increase.
pro-natalism The policy or practice of encouraging the bearing of children, especially government support of a higher birthrate.
anti-natalism A philosophical position that assigns a negative value to birth. An argument that people should abstain from procreation because it is morally bad.
neomalthusians Those who are critical of the demographic transition model.
replacement fertility A level of reproduction in which a population exactly replaces itself from one generation to the next.
agricultural density The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture (arable land).
arithmetic density The total number of people divided by the total land area.
census A complete enumeration of a population.
crude birth rate (CBR) The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
crude death rate (CDR) The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
demographic transition The process of change in a society’s population from having a high birth rate, high death rate and a low rate of natural increase to a condition of having a low birth rate, low death rate, a low rate of natural increase and a higher total population.
demography The scientific study of population characteristics.
dependency ratio The number of people under age 15 and over age 64 compared to the number of people active in the labor force. This is important because this tells how many people each worker supports.
doubling time The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
ecumene The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
elderly support ratio The number of working-age people (ages 15 to 64) divided by the number of persons 65 and older.
epidemiologic transition The process of change in the distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition.
epidemiology The branch of medicine concerned with the incidence, distribution and control of diseases.
Industrial Revolution A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
infant mortality rate (IMR) The number of babies that die within their first year of life.
life expectancy The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions.
maternal mortality rate The annual number of female deaths per 100,000 live births from any cause related to pregnancy.
medical revolution Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that has diffused to poorer countries, eliminating many of the traditional causes of death and enabling more people to live longer and healthier lives.
natural increase rate (NIR) The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
overpopulation The lack of necessary resources to meet the needs of the population of a defined area.
pandemic Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
physiological density The number of people per unit area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
population pyramid A bar graph that represents the distribution of population by age and sex.
sex ratio The number of males per 100 females in the population.
total fertility rate (TFR) The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years.
zero population growth (ZPG) A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero. A phenomenon where the birth rate equals the death rate.
Created by: Paige404